Fig. 10 Schard, Germanicarum rerum quatuor celebriores vetustioresque chronographi (Frankfurt 1566), bound by Georg Freyberger, sold in 2017 View larger
Fig. 10 Schard, Germanicarum rerum quatuor celebriores vetustioresque chronographi (Frankfurt 1566), bound by Georg Freyberger, sold in 2017

Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn’s Library

The approaching 400th anniversary of the death of the bibliophile Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn (18 March 1545–13 September 1617) provides the occasion for a note on the bindings supplied to his court library in Würzburg.1

Born at Schloß Mespelbrunn (Spessart), in Lower Franconia, Julius was the second son of Peter III Echter (1520–1576), a diplomat in the service of the Archbishop-Elector of Mainz, Kurmainzer Rat, and senior official in the neighbouring towns of Stadtprozelten and Dieburg, a cultured man, who possessed a library of more than 1700 volumes, including some in French and Italian.2Educated in Aschaffenburg, Würzburg, and Mainz, Julius matriculated in August 1558 at the newly-founded Jesuitengymnasium in Cologne, and thereafter commenced a peregrinatio academica taking him to universities in Mainz (1559–1561), Louvain (1561), Douai (1563), Paris (1566), Angers (1566), and Pavia, where in 1567 he was granted a licentia docendi in law.3

Julius returned to Würzburg in 1569, and in 1570 was elevated from canon of Würzburg to dean of the cathedral chapter; on 4 December 1573, aged twenty-eight, even before his ordination to the priesthood, he was appointed to the office of Prince-Bishop of Würzburg. As Fürstbischof, Julius Echter began a thorough ecclesiastical restoration, renovating schools, re-founding (in 1575–1576) the university of Würzburg, and rebuilding the Hofbibliothek of his predecessor, Friedrich von Wirsberg, which had been almost completely destroyed by fire on 22 February 1572. Over the next forty years, he collected in the court library more than a thousand volumes, mostly Roman and canon law, history, and Catholic theology, the great majority new books, obtained directly from their publishers, or at the Frankfurt book fair.4

Fig. 1 Binding by Hans Rietzsch for Julius Echter’s private library (UB Würzburg, 35/E 3.102–5; image source)

The Fürstbischof’s purchases were passed to a succession of bookbinders, some of whom are known by name.5The first was Gregor Schenk (Schenck), who had arrived in Würzburg from Zwickau after the death of the Hofbuchbinder Hans Rietzsch (28 January 1571), and taken over his materials.6Gregor Schenk’s bindings for Fürstbischof Echter followed a model that Rietzsch had established for Julius Echter during his tenure as Domherr (1570–1573): wooden boards, covered with alum-tawed pigskin, decorated by a large armorial supralibros, and with narrow rolls (Fig. 1).7 This supralibros (117 × 80 mm), centred on the upper cover, painted blue, displayed the Echter von Mespelbrunn arms (three rings), and was often accompanied by his initials (i e v m) and a date, blindstamped in panels above and below.8

Fig. 2 Binding by Hans Rietzsch for Fürstbischof Friedrich von Wirsberg (Mainz, Stadtbibliotek, XIV g:4°/26; image source)

Similar decoration had been applied to bindings commissioned from Rietzsch by Fürstbischof Wirsberg (Fig. 2).9  On those, the Wirsberg family arms were quartered with charges representing the diocese, the ‘fränkischer Rechen’ and ‘Rennfähnlein’; the supralibros was usually coloured red and black (Fig. 2). Following his appointment as Prince-Bishop, Julius Echter required a new armorial block, quartering his personal arms with these symbols of Hochstift Würzburg. In 1574, a local silversmith and Formschneider, David Heyn, cut two metal dies for impression on the covers of Fürstbischof Echter’s bindings, one rectangular and the other round.10

Figs. 3–4 Armorial supralibros of Fürstbischof Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn (UB Würzburg; image source)

The rectangular version (76 × 54 mm) displays a single shield, on which the Echter von Mespelbrunn arms are duly quartered with the ‘Rechen’ and ‘Rennfähnlein’, and coloured in red and black (Fig. 3).11 This version was usually applied on books in quarto and smaller format. On larger books, the rectangular block was enclosed by a broad frame (122 × 99 mm; Fig. 4), incorporating standing figures of ‘Fides’ and ‘Justitia’, and (on individual escutcheons) the family and ancestral arms: Habern (two battle-axes), Adelsheim (a Steinbock horn), and Rüdt von Collenberg (a dog’s head).12 The frame was normally coloured black, and the insignia inside red, green and black. The circular die (diameter 93 mm) was applied on the very largest books; here, the family arms, the Franconian rake, and banner of the Prince-Bishopric appear on separate shields, which are enclosed by a laurel wreath embellished with the family and ancestral arms (Fig. 5).13

Fig. 5 Armorial supralibros of Fürstbischof Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn (St John's College, Cambridge; image source)

Gregor Schenk served as Hofbuchbinder in 1572–1574, in the latter year returning to Zwickau (he was again working in Würzburg, as Hofbuchbinder, from 1585–1588). At the commencement of his employment, possibly to show Fürstbischof Echter that he possessed the skills expected of a Hofbuchbinder, he produced one of the most extraordinary bindings of the German Renaissance, a circular binding (diameter 27 cm), covering five theological tracts (published at Antwerp, 1569–1570).14The calf binding is elaborately decorated in gilt by individual tools, and has the coloured insignia of Hochstift Würzburg, Echter von Mespelbrunn, Rüdt von Collenberg, Adelsheim, and Habern displayed on the page-edges.

Fig. 6 Binding by Gregor Schenk for Fürstbischof Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn (UB Würzburg; image source)

Schenk was succeeded as Hofbuchbinder by Georg Freyberger (Jörg Freiberger) of Mainz.15Freyberger employed the two arms blocks and the Fides-Justitia frame, which he often combined with his own rolls (one signed gf). In Mainz, Freyberger had produced some bindings with green-stained pages edges, gauffered in gilt with the title of the book, the Jesuit monogram (i h s), and year of binding,16and in 1576 Freyberger initiated this practice in Würzburg. The larger volumes he bound for Fürstbischof Echter received green (or blue-) stained fore-edges, gauffered in gold with Julius’s name (Julius Dei Gratia Episcopus Wirtzburgensis Ac Franconiae Orientalis Dux), the title of the book, and date of binding (Figs. 7/a-d). In 1577–1578, some remnants of Fürstbischof Wirsberg’s library were revamped to match, their fore-edges likewise stained and gauffered with the title of the book and date of binding (1577 or 1578), but without Julius’s name.17 

Fig. 7/a Binding by Georg Freyberger, dated 1578 (image source)18

Fig. 7/b Binding by Jakob Preisger, dated 1582 (image source)19 

Fig. 7/c Binding by Jakob Preisger, dated 1582 (image source)20 

Fig. 7/d Binding by Georg Freyberger, dated 1581 (image source)21 

The most prolific of the known binders working for Fürstbischof Echter was Jakob Preisger (Preisskorn) of Dippoldiswalde (Dresden).22He is recorded in Würzburg in 1576 and as working for Julius Echter in 1578, 1580–1585, and again from 1590 until 1594, though he never was appointed Hofbuchbinder. Preisger had access to the two armorial blocks and frame, which he used in combination with his own rolls (one signed ip), and with ‘Justitia’, ‘Caritas’, ‘Crucifixion’ and ‘Sanctus Kilianus’ panels. Other binders working intermittently for Julius Echter were Hans Herolt (Heroldt)23 and Hans Weiß of Naumburg (1578–1580).24The binders working for Fürstbischof Echter during the last twenty years of his life (c. 1597–1617) have yet to be identified. With the exception of one volume, a copy of the Missale Herbipolense (Würzburg: Conradus Schwindtlauff, 1613), the so-called ‘Julius-Missale’, no book decorated by his supralibros is known,25 and it would seem that the books acquired for the Hofbibliothek in these years are lost, or else unidentifiable.26

The impressive display of the books in the Hofbibliothek inspired Johann Wilhelm Gantzhorn (1541–1609), Rektor und Prokanzler of the university of Würzburg from 1593 to 1596, to commission similar bindings, decorated with his armorial supralibros on covers, and the title of the book and his name gauffered in gilt letters on the dark-stained fore-edge. Very little is known about Gantzhorn’s library, now widely dispersed, with volumes recorded in Australia,27 Germany,28and Greece.29

The Hofbibliothek of Julius Echter is also now widely dispersed. Würzburg was one of the cities overrun in October 1631 by the Protestant army of Gustavus Adolphus; its libraries were looted, and the Hofbibliothek, as well as portions of the university library and the library of the local Jesuit community, were carried away to Sweden.30Estimates of the number of books taken vary, however it seems that at least 1000 volumes from Julius Echter’s Hofbibliothek were transferred. The books were presented by Gustavus Adolphus to the university library in Uppsala, where they were reviewed by Johannes Matthiae Gothus, professor at the university, later head chaplain at the court, tutor to Queen Christina, and Bishop of Strängnäs, who discarded a large number as duplicates (approximately 587 volumes were retained by the university).31

In 1631, Matthiae had befriended the Scottish ecumenist John Dury (Durie), and when Dury came to Sweden in 1636–1638 to promote Protestant unity, the two men became close. Dury is a possible conduit through which about 250 books from the Würzburg Hofbibliothek found their way to England.32Among the thirty-eight eminent Puritan divines who had sponsored Dury’s trip was Richard Holdsworth (1590–1649), Master of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and a voracious bibliophile. Holdsworth bestowed his vast library33to the University, and subsequent research has identified there some 160 Julius Echter bindings, of which ‘Holdsworth had some thirty’.34Dury (1596–1680) was subsequently deputy keeper (under Bulstrode Whitelocke) of St James’s Library, the former royal library.

Additional books from Würzburg Hofbibliothek arrived in Cambridge libraries from other collectors, including Peter Gunning (1614–1684), Master of St John’s, who bequeathed a volume bearing Julius Echter’s insignia to his College; and John Colbatch (1664–1748) of Trinity, who bequeathed three such volumes (now in the University Library).35Most of Julius Echter’s books at Cambridge are in standard pigskin bindings, however at least one is bound in vellum with his arms painted on the upper cover (image).36

A Cambridge bookbinder, John Houlden the Younger, who worked in Cambridge from about 1637 until 1665, seems to have been inspired by Julius Echter’s bindings. In 1655–1656, Houlden bound for the University a four-volume set of Antonius Giggeius, Thesaurus linguæ Arabicæ (Milan 1632) and a copy of Dugdale’s Antiquities of Warwickshire (London 1656). The page-edges of these volumes were stained blue, and their fore-edges gauffered in gold with their titles. Around the same date, the University received from an unnamed binder (most probably Houlden) a copy of Dugdale’s Monasticon Anglicanum (London 1655); its fore-edge was gauffered monasticon | anglicanvm | ex dono | clarissimi | avthoris | gvlielmi dvgdale | 1655. J.C.T. Oates believed it ‘probable’ ‘that Echter’s gauffered titles were Houlden’s direct model and inspiration’.37A decade later, when the University finally took possession of Richard Holdworth’s library, Houlden was engaged ‘for severall weekes’ ‘in removing from place to place, and ordering Dr Holdsworth’s Bookes according to Direction in the University Library’.38A possible explanation for this employment might be long-standing acquaintance with Holdsworth’s books.

Books from the Würzburg Hofbibliothek adorned by Julius Echter’s supralibros and with gauffered fore-edges are found in Oxford libraries;39in the British Library;40in the Wellcome Library;41in the National Art Library, Victoria & Albert Museum;42 and in Dublin.43

Some 43 of Julius Echter’s bindings are in Universitätsbibliothek Würzburg;44another two are in Mainfränkische Museum Würzburg.45Eight bindings in Berlin46and others in Bensheim,47Cologne,48Mainz,49and Schweinfurt50are published; additional volumes in Bamberg, Gießen, Leipzig, Nuremberg can be located through the Einbanddatenbank. The books from Julius Echter’s private library and from the Hofbibliothek once preserved in Gotha have mostly disappeared; however, some can located through the opac of the Universitäts- und Forschungsbibliothek Erfurt/Gotha. Four bindings are on the database of digitised images of bindings in the Bibliothèque Sainte-Geneviève in Paris;51at least five are in the Bibliothèque Mazarine;52and one in the Bibliothèque de la Sorbonne has been published.53The bindings in Swedish libraries mostly await full documentation: just two, in Uppsala Universitetsbibliotek, are at present recorded by the ProBok provenance database.54

Julius Echter bindings are not often seen in the market. During the past thirty years, we find records for books offered in 1985,551988,56and 1995.57

Figs. 8–9 Estienne’s Thesaurus graecae linguae ([Geneva] 1572), uniformly bound by Jakob Preisger, sold in 2008

In 2008, a set of the five-volume Henri Estienne, Thesaurus graecae linguae ([Geneva] 1572), uniformly bound by Jakob Preisger, the fore-edges gauffered: iulus dei gra eps wirceburg ac franciae orientalis dux 1573, came to the market in Paris (Figs. 8–9). The set, inscribed by Christopher Dahl (1758–1809), professor of Greek, rector of the University of Uppsala (1792), had been acquired by Charles Gillot (1853–1903), and passed from his library into the possession of Louise-Marcelle Gillot-Seure, and Georges Seure (1873–1944).58

Figs. 10–11 Schardius, Germanicarum rerum quatuor celebriores vetustioresque chronographi (Frankfurt 1566), bound by Georg Freyberger, sold in 2017

In December 2017, a copy of Simon Schardius, Germanicarum rerum quatuor celebriores vetustioresque chronographi (Frankfurt am Main 1566; together with a book printed at Basel, 1569), bound by Georg Freyberger, came on the London market (Figs. 7/a, 10–12).59Its upper cover featured the rectangular version of Julius Echter’s quartered arms, within the frame, with further decoration by three rolls: Crucifixion (ecce agnvs) – Resurrection (mors ero mor) – Jacob’s dream (amo do vide) – Annunciation (concipies);60 Christ child, standing with Cross – Putto with arms of Mainz (wheel) – Putto with arms of Saxony (partitioned shield with crancelin) – Putto with coat of arms;61Christ as Saviour of the World (data es) – John the Baptist (ecce ag) – Paul (apparv) – David (de frvc).62Its fore-edge is lettered: germanica | rum. rerum | chronogra | phi. et | vrspringe[n]sis | chronicvm | ivli. die grat: | ep. wirceb: | ac franciae | orient[halis]: dux. | 1578.

Fig. 12 Ownership inscription of Fürstbischof Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn

1. The anniversary will be celebrated in Würzburg by two exhibitions, ‘Julius Echter – Patron der Künste’, in the Martin von Wagner Museum (25 June–24 September 2017), and ‘Julius Echter (1573–1617): Der umstrittene Fürstbischof’, in Museum am Dom Würzburg (22 June–17 September 2017). For the full programme of events, see (link).

2. Gottfried Mälzer, ‘Julius Echters Beziehungen zu Büchern und zur Bibliophilie’ in Aus dem Antiquariat (1988), pp.349–360 (p.353, at ‘mit mindestens 1500 Bänden’, citing a manuscript catalogue of the family library: Universitätsbibliothek Würzburg, Handschriftensammlung, M. ch. f. 641). Cf. Eva Pleticha, Adel und Buch: Studien zur Geisteswelt des fränkischen Adels am Beispiel seiner Bibliotheken vom 15. bis zum 18. Jahrhundert (Neustadt a.d. Aisch 1983), pp.18, 44, 274 (reporting 1760 volumes, analysed by subject). The library was dispersed about 1646.

3. Alfred Wendehorst, Die Bistümer der Kirchenprovinz Mainz. Das Bistum Würzburg. Teil 3: Die Bischofsreihe von 1455 bis 1617 (Berlin 1978), p.165.

4. Mälzer, op. cit., p.357 (noting the expenditure of 280 Gulden at the Frankfurt fair of 1574).

5. Angelika Pabel, ‘Die Buchbinder Julius Echters: Ihre Werke in der Einbandsammlung der Universitätsbibliothek Würzburg’ in Mainfränkisches Jahrbuch für Geschichte und Kunst 39 (1987), pp.58–65; A. Pabel, ‘Für Klöster, Bischof und Universität: Buchbinder in Würzburg’ in Abklatsch, Falz und Zwiebelfisch: 525 Jahre Buchdruck und Bucheinband in Würzburg, catalogue for an exhibition held in the Universitätsbibliothek Würzburg, 17 September–21 November 2004 (Würzburg 2004), pp.101–129.

6. Heinrich Endres, ‘Die Zwickauer Buchbinder Hans Rietzsch und Gregor Schenck und ihre Beziehungen zu Würzburg’ in Archiv für Buchbinderei 26 (1926), pp.13–16; H. Endres, ‘Neues zur Lebens- und Werkstattgeschichte des Würzburger Meisters Hans Rietzsch (hr) aus Zwickau’ in Archiv für Buchbinderei 34 (1934), pp.33–34; Ilse Schunke, ‘Gregor Schenck der Jüngere, ein Würzburger Buchbinder der Renaissance’ in Gutenberg-Jahrbuch 1968, pp.315–322.

7. Fig. 1: Johannes, Chrysostomus, Opera (Paris 1570), five volumes (bound as four). One volume reproduced by Heinrich Endres, ‘Bibliothek und Superexlibris des Domdechanten Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn’ in Nordisk tidskrift för bok- och biblioteksväsen 20 (1933), pp.42–48, Abb. 1 (link); Pabel, op. cit., 1987, p.62 no. 1. The tools on this binding are associated with Hans Rietzsch by the Einbanddatenbank (EBDB p001473).

8. For Julius Echter’s private library, see Otto Walde, ‘Die Herzogl. Bibliothek in Gotha und die literarische Kriegsbeute aus Würzburg’ in Nordisk tidskrift för bok- och biblioteksväsen 17 (1930), pp.14–30 (link). Six pigskin bindings for Julius Echter as Domherr, all now in Universitätsbibliothek Würzburg, are discussed by Pabel, op. cit., 1987, pp.62–63; and by Mälzer, op. cit., pp.353–356. One (35/E.6.108) is reproduced by Mälzer, Abb. 1, and by Pabel, op. cit., 2004, p.107.

9. Fig. 2: Johann Wild, Der Prediger Salomonis (Mainz 1559). The binding is reproduced by Annelen Ottermann, “Rara wachsen nach”: Einblicke in die Rarasammlung der Wissenschaftlichen Stadtbibliothek Mainz (Mainz 2008), pp.35–36 no. 12 (link); A. Ottermann, Die Mainzer Karmelitenbibliothek: Spurensuche – Spurensicherung – Spurendeutung (Berlin 2016), p.606 and Abb. 280 (link). Six, similarly decorated volumes, now in Uppsala, Universitetsbiblioteket, are cited by Otto Handwerker, ‘Die Hofbibliothek des Würzburger Fürstbischofs Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn’ in Nordisk tidskrift för bok- och biblioteksväsen 12 (1925), pp.1–42 (p.20; link). For their bibliographical details, see Pius Wittmann, ‘Würzburger Bücher in der kgl. schwedischen Universitätsbibliothek zu Upsala und in der Domkirchenbibliothek zu Strengnäs’ in Archiv des Historischen Vereins von Unterfranken und Aschaffenburg 34 (1891), pp.111–161 (nos. 61, 75, 127, 207, 291, 429; link).

10. August Stöhr, ‘Superexlibris der Bischöfe von Würzburg’ in Ex-libris: Zeitschrift für Bibliothekzeichen, Bücherkunde und Gelehrtengeschichte 16 (1906), pp.180–188; Heinrich Endres, ‘Buchbinder und Wappensupralibros im 16. Jahrhundert’ in Archiv für Buchbinderei 30 (1930), pp.49–51; Endres, op. cit., 1933, pp.42–48 (link).

11. Pabel, op. cit., 1987, pp.60–61 (fifteen bindings)

12. Pabel, op. cit., 1987, pp.61–62 (five bindings); Mälzer, op. cit., Abb. 9; Pabel, op. cit., 2004, Farbtafel x. Cf. Einbanddatenbank (EBDB p001490).

13. Endres, op. cit., 1930, Abb. 74; Pabel, op. cit., 1987, pp.59–60 (four bindings); Mälzer, op. cit., Abb. 10; Pabel, op. cit., 2004, Farbtafel x; Einbanddatenbank (EBDB p001478).

14. Würzburg, Universitätsbibliothek, 35/E 10.100. Paul Hirsch, Eine kleine Bücherschau für die Teilnehmer an den Hauptversammlung der Gesellschaft der Bibliophilen, der Maximilian-Gesellschaft und der Gesellschaft Hessischer Bücherfreunde, catalogue for an exhibition ‘im Hause Paul Hirsch’ (Frankfurt am Main 1920), no. 181; Christel Schmidt, ‘Aus der Sammlung Olga Hirsch: Ein kreisrunder Einband von Caspar Meuser’ in Buch und Bucheinband: Aufsätze und graphische Blätter zum 60. Geburtstage von Hans Loubier (Leipzig 1923), pp.194–198 and pls. 23–24. The Sammelband was subsequently in the libraries of J.R. Abbey (his sale, Sotheby & Co., London, 22 June 1965, lot 336) and Cornelius J. Hauck (his sale, Christie’s, New York, 27–28 June 2006, lot 197, $65,000), where acquired by the Universitätsbibliothek Würzburg (link). Angelika Pabel, ‘Der runde Renaissance-Einband für Fürstbischof Julius Echter: neues Glanzstück der Würzburger Einbandsammlung’ in Einbandforschung Informationsblatt des Arbeitskreises für die Erfassung und Erschließung Historischer Bucheinbände 20 (2007), pp.27–35 (link, via downloads).

15. For Freyberger’s materials and activity in Mainz and Würzburg, see Konrad Haebler, Rollen- und Plattenstempel des xvi. Jahrhunderts (Leipzig 1928–1929), i, p.114 and ii, p.315; Elisabeth Geck, ‘Zwei Mainzer Buchbinder des 16. Jahrhunderts’ in Gutenberg-Jahrbuch 1954, pp.316–320; Angelika Pabel, ‘Ein Einband von Georg Freyberger im Tübinger Wilhelmsstift’ in Wolfenbütteler Notizen zur Buchgeschichte (Festschrift für Gerd Brinkhus zum 65. Geburtstag) 33 (2008), pp.57–62.

16. Ilse Schunke, ‘Deutsche Einbände der Gegenreformation’ in Gutenberg-Jahrbuch 1972, pp.363–372 (p.366); Pabel, op. cit., 2008, p.57; Annelen Ottermann, Woher unsere Bücher kommen: Provenienzen der Mainzer Stadtbibliothek im Spiegel von Exlibris, catalogue of an exhibition held in the Stadtbibliothek Mainz, 10 February–14 May 2011 (Mainz 2011), pp.24–25 (link).

17. Handwerker, op. cit., p.20: ‘Sie haben auf den Schnitten Goldpressungen wie auf den Folianten der Juliusbücher, aber nur den Titel des Buches nebst der Jahreszahl 1577–1578, während der den Juliusbüchern beigesetzte Name des Fürsten fehlt. Augenscheinlich wurden diese Pressungen erst lange nach dem Binden vorgenommen, um die Gleichförmigkeit in der Hofbibliothek herzustellen’.

18. Fig. 7/a: Christie’s, ‘Valuable books and manuscripts’, London, 1 December 2016, lot 91 (link).

19. Fig. 7/b: Uppsala universitetsbibliotek, Kulturarvet Uka Obr. 47:38. On Jacopo de Forlivio, Expositio et qvaestiones in primvm canonem Avicennae (Venice 1547) and Giovanni Arcolani, De febribvs (Venice 1560), fore-edge lettered: iacob[vs] foroliviensis in primvm canonem avicennae et hercvlan[vs] de febrib[vs] (link).

20. Fig. 7/c: Bibliothèque Sainte-Geneviève, FOL C 1(2) INV 2 RES. On Domenico Giacobazzi, De concilio tractatus (Rome 1538), fore-edge lettered: dom iacoba | tivs de | concilio | ivlivs | dei gra[tia] | ep[iscopu]s | wircebur. | et fran. orient | dux | 1582 (image). ‘Ex-dono de Charles-Maurice Le Tellier à l’Abbaye Sainte-Geneviève, 1710’.

21. Fig. 7/d: British Library, C68e13. On Paulus Aegineta, Totius rei medicae libri vii (Basel 1556), fore-edge lettered: pavlvs | aegine | ta | iul[vs] dei | gr[ati]a : ep[iscopu]s | ac | franci | orient | dux | 1581 (link).

22. For Preisger’s materials and activity, see Haebler, op. cit., i, pp.332–334; Heinrich Endres, ‘Jacob Preisger, der Würzburger Meister jp’ in Archiv für Buchbinderei 43 (1943), pp.25–27; Pabel, op. cit., 2004, pp.111, 113; Angelika Pabel, ‘Wer fertigte den Einband der ersten Würzburger Universitätsmatrikel? Einige Überlegungen zu den Wittenberger C.K-Werkzeugen’ in Einband-Forschung 19 (2006), pp.37–42.

23. Among Herolt’s materials were panels featuring ‘Lucretia’, St Kilian and St Burkhard; see Heinrich Endres, ‘Sankt Kilian und Sankt Burkard auf fränkischen Buchplatten der Juliuszeit’ in Altfränkische Bilder (1929), ff. 5–6; Andreas Wittenberg, ‘Hans Herolt, Würzburg’ in Einband-Forschung 3 (1998), p.25; Angelika Pabel, ‘Der Würzburger “Fides-Meister”‘ in Habent sua signa libelli: Beiträge zum Bucheinband in Geschichte und Gegenwart: Konrad von Rabenau anlässlich seines 90. Geburtstags am 3. Februar 2014 gewidmet, edited by Barbara Schneider-Kempf (Berlin 2015), pp.127–139.

24. Handwerker, op. cit., pp.27–28; Pabel, op. cit., 2004, p.113.

25. The circular supralibros is used – unusually – on both covers, and left uncoloured; see Pabel, op. cit., 2004, p.109.

26. Pabel, op. cit., 1990, pp.226–228.

27. Monash University Library, f 133.4 D364D: Martin Del Rio, Disquisitionum magicarum libri sex (Mainz 1603), bound in pigskin over wooden boards, edges stained blue, fore-edge gauffered: delrio | disqvit | magicar | io wilhel | gantzhor | ivd 1604 (image); the colophon leaf is inscribed: Joannis Wilhelmj Ganzhornij I[uris] V[triusque] D[octor]. See B.J. McMullin, ‘Bibliographical notes, No. 10: A tooled fore-edge title’ in Bulletin (Bibliographical Society of Australia and New Zealand) 22 (no. 3, 1998), pp.173–175.

28. Würzburg, Universitätsbibliothek, Inc. f. 25: Missale Herbipolense (Würzburg, after 11 October 1499). Ilona Hubay, Incunabula der Universitätsbibliothek Würzburg (Wiesbaden 1966), p.304 no. 1478 (Wappensupralibros ‘Johannes Wilhelmus Ganzhorn I.V. Doctor’).

29. Athens, National Library of Greece, ϴ 465: Antoninus, Summa (in four volumes, Nuremberg: Koberger, 1486–1487). Dennis E. Rhodes, Incunabula in Greece: a first census (Munich 1980), p.28 no. A12 (‘original stamped binding on wooden boards, with the name io. wilh. gantzhorn i.v.d. blocked in gold on the fore-edge of each volume’).

30. Adam Heymowski, ‘Les butins de guerre franconiens dans les bibliothèques suédoises’ in Bulletin du bibliophile (no. 1, 1991), pp.63–65, figs. 4–6; Otto Walde, ‘Der Bücherraub der Schweden 1631 in Würzburg’ in Mainfränkisches Jahrbuch für Geschichte und Kunst 56 (2004), pp.162–179 (a classic account, published in Swedish in 1916, newly translated by Karlheinz Kuhn).

31. The books are inventoried by Pius Wittmann, op. cit., pp.111–161, recording 587 volumes in 509 entries (link). Another six books are located by Wittmann in the Strängnäs Cathedral Library (p.161).

32. Jörg Ulrich Fechner, ‘English Holdings from the Library of Prince-Bishop Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn (1574–1616). A Catalogue and an Enquiry into the Literary, Historical and Artistic Aspects of this Collection’, MLitt thesis, Cambridge 1972; J.U. Fechner, ‘Neue Funde und Forschungen zur Hofbibliothek von Fürstbischof Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn’ in Mainfränkisches Jahrbuch für Geschichte und Kunst 25 (1973), pp.16–32.

33. An early catalogue of the library (Cambridge Library MSS., Dd. viii. 45) lists 10,095 volumes, of which 186 were in manuscript.

34. J.C.T. Oates, Cambridge University Library: a history: from the beginnings to the Copyright Act of Queen Anne (Cambridge 1986), p.335. Some of these contain a printed book label, indicating that they were gifted to St John’s College during the collector’s lifetime (Oates, op. cit., p.305); the vast majority of Holdsworth’s books came to the University library in 1664. One (University Library, G*.2.11), a Freyberger binding, is reproduced by G.D. Hobson, ‘German Renaissance patrons of bookbinding’ in The Book Collector 3 (Autumn 1954), pp.171–189, 251–271 (pp.179, 185 and pl. 1).

35. Oates, op. cit., p.335.

36. St John’s College, T.9.32: an imperfect Breviarium (Pars Hiemalis), lacking its title-page (opaclink).

37. J.C.T. Oates, ‘Fore-edge titles in Cambridge University Library’ in Transactions of the Cambridge Bibliographical Society 3 (no. 2, 1960), pp.163–165 (p.165).

38. Oates, op. cit., 1986, p.327.

39. Oxford, Bodleian libraries, J–260: Justinianus, Digestum novum (Rome 1476), bound with Preisger’s materials, ex-libris G.F.B. Kloß (1787–1854; his sale in 1835, lot 2237), Bod-Inc Online J-260; S–312: Statuta Synodalia Herbipolensia ([Würzburg c.1486), circular supralibros, with St Kilian panel stamp on lower cover, presented by John Selden (1584-1654) in 1659, Bod-Inc Online S-312. A copy of Jacobus de Vitriaco, Sermones (Antwerp 1575), presented by Thomas Clayton to Merton College in 1680 (opac), featured in Fine bindings, 1500–1700: from Oxford libraries, catalogue of an exhibition organised by the Bodleian Library (Oxford 1968), p.65 no. 116 (fore-edge lettered 1586).

40. British Library, C68e13: Paulus Aegineta, Totius rei medicae libri vii (Basel 1556); bound by Georg Freyberger (database of bookbindings; link). British Library, L.19: Petrus Busaeus, Institutiones, et exercitamenta Christianæ pietatis (Cologne 1577).

41. London, Wellcome Library, 2847/D: [Lilio Gregorio Giraldi], Operum quae extant omnium (Basel 1580); ‘The arms of the Ducal Bishop of Wurzburg in centre of front cover: stamped on fore-edges in gold is ‘Julius dei Gra. Eps. Wirceburg. et Fran. Orient. Dux 1580’, and the title and date of the work (opac). A ‘Justitia’ panel decorates the lower cover. Ex-libris Biblioteca Visnievsciana (Wiszniewski; library sold by Sotheby, Wilkinson & Hodge, London, 8 February 1869) and William Morris Kelmscott House (ex-Sotheby, Wilkinson & Hodge, 5–10 December 1898, lot 574; link).

42. London, National Art Library, Drawer 49: Hubert Goltzius, C. Ivlivs Caesar; sive, Historiae imperatorvm Caesarvmqve romanorvm ex antiqvis nvmismatibvs restitvtae (Bruges 1563), bound by Georg Freyberger; W.H.J. Weale, Bookbindings and rubbings of bindings in the National Art Library South Kensington Museum (London 1884–1898), p.45 B-196: ‘The title tooled in gold on the front edge’ (link).

43. Dublin, Marsh’s Library (opac): Francesco Filelfo, Epistolarum D. Francisci Philelphi … unus et viginti libri reliqui (Paris 1503), a Preisger binding, decorated by Echter’s rectangular supralibros (without frame). Mirjam Foot, The decorated bindings in Marsh’s library, Dublin (Aldershot 2004), pp.115–116: ‘The arms panel is impressed through (now oxidised) “Zwischgold”, a metal foil, popular in German-speaking areas of Europe, made by beating a very thin layer of gold over a supporting layer of silver foil, an economy measure that time has shown up. The arms have been embellished further with red, green and blue paint… The edges of the leaves have been stained green’. Foot’s description does not mention a gauffered fore-edge.

44. Angelika Pabel, ‘Ein neuentdeckter Band aus der Hofbibliothek Julius Echters’ in Mainfränkisches Jahrbuch für Geschichte und Kunst 42 (1990), pp.226–228 (recording 32 bindings); Pabel, op. cit., 2004, p.110 (‘43 Echter-Bände verwahrt die Universitätsbibliothek Würzburg in ihrer Einbandsammlung’).

45. Pabel, op. cit., 1987, p.63. Both are bound by Georg Freyberger.

46. Hans-Erich Teitge, ‘Echter-Bände in der Deutschen Staatsbibliothek Berlin’ in Das Buch als Quelle historischer Forschung: Fritz Juntke anläßl. seines 90. Geburtstages gewidmet (Leipzig 1977), pp.177–183. Reprinted in Berliner Manuskripte und Viadrina-Drucke, edited by Wolfgang Milde (Hildesheim 2004), pp.229–235.

47. Volkhard Huth, ‘Einbandforschung und Prosopographie: Neues aus der IPG-Bibliothek’ in Mitteilungen des Instituts für Personengeschichte 14 (April 2011), pp.3–5 (on the four-volume Giovio, Basel 1577–1578, link; IPG-Signatur: 16-18/Giovio/11).

48. Gunter Quarg, Vom Kettenbuch zur Collage: Bucheinbände des 15. bis 20. Jahrhunderts aus den Sammlungen der Universitäts- und Stadtbibliothek Köln, catalogue of an exhibition held in the Foyer der Universitäts- und Stadtbibliothek, 11 November–21 December 2002), p.70 no. 26 (a binding using Georg Freyberger’s materials on a book printed in 1574).

49. Woher unsere Bücher kommen, op. cit., pp.22–24 (link).

50. Manfred von Arnim, Europäische Einbandkunst aus sechs Jahrhunderten: Beispiele aus der Bibliothek Otto Schäfer, catalogue of an exhibition in the Bibliothek Otto Schäfer, 11 October 1992–28 March 1993 (Schweinfurt 1992), p.62. The volume was in the J.R. Abbey sale (Part iii, conducted by Sotheby & Co., London, 19–21 June 1967, p.75 lot 1802), and was sold to Otto Schäfer by Breslauer (February 1968). This volume (Jacobus Cuiacius, Opera [parts IV–V], Paris 1577), with fore-edge dated 1580, is described by E.G. Duff and S.T. Prideaux, in The Burlington Fine Arts Club, Exhibition of bookbindings: commemorative catalogue (London 1891), Case B, no. 43 (lent by W.F.B. Massey Mainwaring).

51. See the Library’s database ‘Reliures estampées à froid’, with reproductions of four bindings (link).

52. Shelfmarks Inc 1052; Inc 1229-1/2; 2° 3863 A-1/3 [Res]; 2° 519 A x-1 [Res]; 2° 3820 B-3 [Res].

53. Catalogue de cent un livres anciens rares ou précieux de la Bibliothèque de la Sorbonne, catalogue for an exhibition commencing 23 September 1991 (Paris 1991), no. 49b (on Wolfgang Hunger, In Joannis Cuspiniani Caesarum historiam annotationes, Basel 1561; opac).

54. (1) Uppsala, Universitetsbiblioteket, Ukac Obr. 47:38: Jacobus de Forlivio, Expositio et qvaestiones in primvm Canonem Avicennae (Venice 1547), bound by Jakob Preisger, gauffered fore-edge: iacob[vs] foroliviensis in primvm canonem avicennae et hercvlan[vs] de febrib[vs] | ivlivs dei gra[tia] epi[scopv]s wirceb[vrgensis] ac franciae orient[alis] dvx 1582 (link; multiple images). (2) Uppsala, Universitetsbibliotek, Bokband 1500-t. Tyskland 27: Francesco Giorgio, In scripturam sacram problemata (Paris 1575), bound by Jakob Preisger, rectangular supralibros (without frame), Kilian panel on lower cover (EBDB p001491), heads in medallion roll, plain edges (no gauffering) (link; multiple images).

55. Thomas Beauxamis, Homiliae in omnia quae perquadragesimam leguntur Evangelia (Paris 1503); offered by Bloomsbury Book Auctions, ‘Catalogue of early printed books many in interesting bindings and including examples from more than 150 presses of the 15th century: the property of a continental collector [Conrad, Graf Reuttner-Weyl, 1908–1969], and other properties’, 31 October–1 November 1985, lot 259 (£350).

56. Valentinus Rotmarus, Apollonii Rhodii Argonauticorum (Basel 1570) bound with Sébastien Châteillon, Sibyllinorum Oraculorum Libri viii (Basel 1555). Offered by Gérard Oberlé, ‘Amoenitates poeticae latinae modernae: sive, Catalogus librorum poetar. latinor. sec. xi–xx’, Cercy-La-Tour 1988, pp.170–171 item 201 (reproduced). Coloured supralibros on upper cover; ‘Vignette avec la Trinité sur le second plat’. Ex-libris of Simon Gunton (1609–1676), antiquary and historian of Peterborough, and of the physician Félix Durosier.

57. Galasso Alghisi da Carpi, Delle fortificationi (Venice 1570), bound with Giacomo Barozzi called Il Vignola, Regola delli cinque ordini d’architettura (Venice [1582]), bound with Jacques Besson, Theatrum instrumentorum et machinarum (Lyon 1578). Offered by Swann Galleries, ‘Rare books’, New York, 19 October 1995, lot 3 ($3200). The decoration is achieved using old rolls of Hans Rietzsch (Haebler, op. cit., p.370 nos. 1–2) and Jakob Preisger’s panel stamp of Saint Kilian. The gauffered fore-edge is dated 1586 (now Chicago, T. Kimball Brooker collection).

58. Christie’s, ‘Ancienne collection Charles Gillot (1853–1903)’, Paris, 4–5 March 2008, lot 257 (€6250; link); re-sold by Reiss & Sohn, Auktion 123, 28–29 October 2008, lot 1037 (€12,000); afterwards offered in the French (link) and German trade (in January 2017 with Antiquariat Daniel Müller; link).

59. Christie’s, ‘Valuable books and manuscripts', London, 1 December 2016, lot 91 (£13,750).

60. The roll is 228 × 23 mm and signed gf in the Crucifixion panel. EBDB r002855 (link); Haebler, op. cit., i, 114, 3.

61. The roll is 202 × 14 mm. EBDB r002854 (link); Haebler, op. cit., i, 114, 2; Weale, op. cit., nos. 196 and 822.

62. The width of the roll is 14 mm. EBDB r002856 (link); Elisabeth Geck, op. cit., p.317 and Abb. 8.