Part-wrapper for Fascicule IV ("Ruined Barahdurri, near Jounpur"), printed at The Oriental Lithographic Press established in Calcutta by Jean-Baptiste Tassin, in 1829-1830 (325 × 515 mm) View larger
Part-wrapper for Fascicule IV ("Ruined Barahdurri, near Jounpur"), printed at The Oriental Lithographic Press established in Calcutta by Jean-Baptiste Tassin, in 1829-1830 (325 × 515 mm)
  • Part-wrapper for Fascicule IV ("Ruined Barahdurri, near Jounpur"), printed at The Oriental Lithographic Press established in Calcutta by Jean-Baptiste Tassin, in 1829-1830 (325 × 515 mm)
  • View of Chihil Sutūn at Jaunpur, destroyed by the British in 1859 (Fascicule I, plate 1; 325 × 515 mm)
Kittoe (Markham), 1808-1853

Illustrations of Indian architecture from the Muhammadan conquest downwards, selected from a portfolio of architectural drawings, prepared with much care, and principally by regular measurements, from buildings at Agra, Delhi, Juanpur, Benares, Chunar and numerous other places in upper India

Calcutta, Published by Thacker and Co., 1838-1841
The first book on Islamic architecture in India, printed by “The Oriental Lithographic Press” in Calcutta, and issued to subscribers in fascicules consisting of four plates accompanied by a leaf of letterpress. Twelve parts were published in an orderly way (two leaves of preliminaries, twelve leaves of text, and forty-eight plates); thereafter, highly irregularly, until publication was suspended in 1841. No copy is known with the full complement of text and plates (69 plates appear to have been issued; plate XXV: “Doorway of a Merchant’s House, City of Bunarus” is absent in this set). The principal sites documented are in Uttar Pradesh: the Mosque Shahi Qila at Jaunpur, the mosques at Jami and Jhanjhiri, and the Chihil Sutūn at Jaunpur, built by Fīrūz Shah’s governor, and destroyed by the British in 1859. At Agra, Kittoe records the fort and Taj Mahal and sites at Benares and Fatehpur Sikri, all with plates of architectural details. Some Hindu sites are also documented, including the Cow Temple near Agra and the ancient temple to Shiva at Kalpi.
Subjects
Archaeology, Indian
India - Description and travel
Islamic art and architecture
Authors/Creators
Kittoe, Markham, 1808-1853
Artists/Illustrators
Kittoe, Markham, 1808-1853
Printers/Publishers
Thacker and Co., active 1819-?

Kittoe, Markham
Woolwich, Kent 1808 – 1853 Coddenham, Suffolk

Illustrations of Indian architecture from the Muhammadan conquest down­wards, selected from a portfolio of architectural drawings, prepared with much care, and principally by regular measurements, from buildings at Agra, Delhi, Juanpur, Benares, Chunar and numerous other places in upper India.

Calcutta, ‘Published by Thacker and Co.’, 1838–1841

oblong folio (325 × 515 mm), (16) ff. letterpress, printed on rectos only (complete); plus sixty-eight (of 69) lithographed plates (numbered 1–12, i–xxiv, xxvi–xxxix, xli, xlii, xlv, xlviii, l, li, liv, lvii, lx, lxiii; plus two plates repetitively numbered xx, xxiii, and six plates without numbers). A Notice to Subscribers (dated Calcutta, December 31st, 1841) is loosely inserted (see below). Plate xxv (‘Door­way of a Merchant’s House, City of Bunarus’) lacking in this set.

A few plates very lightly dust-soiled, a few sheet edges torn or abraded through mishandling; other­wise in extremely fresh state of preservation.

unbound in a modern portfolio, together with five (nos. ii, iii, iv, vii, xii; of thirteen?) part-wrappers.1

The first book on Islamic architecture in India, printed by the Oriental Litho­graphic Press in Calcutta.2 The author, Markham Kittoe, was a pioneer of Indian archaeology. His investigations, con­ducted while an officer of the Bengal 6th Native Infantry, were encouraged by James Prinsep, Secre­tary of the Asiatic Society. After Kittoe was removed from service in 1837, as a result of his having brought charges of oppression against his commanding officer, Prinsep obtained a position for him which allowed for wide travel. The present publication, and another on the monuments of Orissa, published in 1838–1839, resulted.3 In 1846, Kittoe was appointed Archaeological Surveyor to the Govern­ment of India; he also practised as an architect, with Queen’s College, Benares, built in the Gothic Revival style (1847–1852), his most ambi­tious project.

Fascicule i (pl. 1) Chihil Sutūn at Jaunpur, destroyed by the British in 1859

Most of the sites documented are in Uttar Pradesh: the Mosque Shahi Qila at Jaunpur, the mosques at Jami and Jhanjhiri, and the Chihil Sutūn at Jaunpur, built by Fīrūz Shah’s gov­ernor, destroyed by the British in 1859. At Agra, Kittoe records the fort and Taj Mahal; and sites at Benares and Fatehpur Sikri, all with plates of architectural details. Hindu sites are also recorded: the Cow Temple near Agra, and the ancient temple to Shiva at Kalpi.

Kittoe’s Illustrations of Indian architecture was published in fascicules, each one com­prised of a leaf of letterpress and four plates; the first plate, a view, was designated by an Arabic numeral, and the three others, invariably architectural details, received Roman numerals. Twelve parts were published in an orderly way (besides the two leaves of pre­liminaries, a total of twelve leaves of text and forty-eight plates).4 Part xiii was not pub­lished complete: the view of the Mausoleum of Sheikh Salim Chishti at Futtehpoor (Fatehpur Sikri), which would have been desig­nated ‘Pl. 13’, was not printed; and the fascicule was distributed with three plates of details only (numbered xxxvii–xxxix).

Sometime thereafter the publisher dispatched to subscribers a leaf of text (presumably for part xiv) and eighteen plates, with this printed announcement inserted

‘Notice to Subscribers | Owing to want of leisure in the first instance, consequent on the arduous public duties the Author has had for several years past to perform, and in the next, to a protracted illness resulting therefrom, which renders his immediate departure for Europe necessary, he has decided upon issuing the whole of the Plates which have been printed, and preparing the remainder in London, availing himself of the assistance of able Lithographers, by which arrangement the work will be completed in less time, and in a superior style than could have been effected in this country, he therefore trusts that it will meet with the approval of Subscribers. | Calcutta, December 31st, 1841’

No continuation published from London is known.

Copies known to the writer include

● London, British Library, 559*.e.23 (contains the full complement of sixty-nine plates issued; lacking a leaf of printed text, perhaps intended for fascicule xiv, with drop-title Atala Musjid, Joun­pur)

● London, British Architectural Library (parts i–viii only, presented to the Royal Institute of British Architects by the author, 25 January 1841, and presumably all the fascicules published by that date)

● London, National Art Library, F.3.23 (parts i–xii only, i.e. twelve folios of letterpress and forty-eight plates numbered 1–12, i–xxxvi; upper cover of one wrapper mounted on card and bound in)

references Early printed books, 1478–1840: catalogue of the British Architectural Library Early Imprints Collection (London 1995), p.882 no. 1677; Universal Catalogue of Books on Art (London 1870), i, p.997

Contents

■ Fascicule i (folios 1–7): printed title; printed Preface, subscribed by the author ‘Calcutta, August 15, 1838’ (below, Printed by William Rushton and Co., Vansittart Row, Calcutta); printed text Meer Shehid’s Durgah, Benares; Chehel Situn, Jounpur; lithographed plate Chelel Situn Jounpur (Pl. 1); plate Darwáza or Gateway (Pl. i); plate, Tora Curria or Chirria or Stone Brackets Corbels (Pl. ii); plate, Jálí or Stone Trelliswork (Pl. iii)

■ ii (folios 8–12): printed text Old Mosque in the Fort of Jounpur; plate Musjid in the Fort, Jounpur (Pl. 2); plate Gateway in the Puthan Style (Pl. iv); plate Dàsà or Plinth ornaments, String Courses (Pl. v); plate Jálí or Stone Trelliswork (no. vi)

■ iii (folios 13–17) text Ruins at Kutgurh, Jounpur; plate Ruins at Jounpúr in the village of Kutcurha (Pl. 3); plate Gateway in the Great Sqare [sic] in the Fort or Palace of Agra (Pl. vii); plate Dásá, Jhálur. Plint [sic] Ornaments, String Courses (Pl. viii); plate Jalí, or Stone Trellis Work (Pl. ix)

■ iv (folios 18–22) text Ruined Barahdurri, near Jounpur; plate Ruined Bàràhdurrì on the banks of the Gùmti near Jounpùr (Pl. 4); plate Elevation of part of the base of the Taj at Agra (Pl. x); plate Gúldár Kuthera, Ornamental Balustrades (Pl. xi); plate Jálí Zinirì. Stone Trellis-Work (Pl. xii), plate, Jali, Ziniri. Stone Trellis-Work (Pl. xii)

■ v (folios 23–27) text Lal Durwaza and Kùtila, at Delhi; plate Lál Dárwásá Gate of the Old City of Delhi with the ruins of Ferós Shah’s Citadel called the Kútilá (Pl. 5); plate Dallan Arcades & Colon­nades (Pl. xiii); plate Gul, Phool, Kutaifa. Spandril Ornaments (PL. xiv); plate Jali, Zinzírí or Stone Trelliswork (Pl. xv)

■ vi (folios 28–32) text The Jamai Musjid, Jounpur; plate Juma Musjid Jounpur (Pl. 6); plate A Cazi’s Monument at Agra (Pl. xvi); plate Kungúra, Kingra. Battlements and ornamental Parapets (Pl. xvii); plate Jali, Zinzírí. Stone Trellis Work (Pl. xviii)

■ vii (folios 33–37) text Sarai and Bridge of Chuppurgutta; plate Bridge, Tombs, Ruins and Sarai at Chuppurgutta near Musanagur (Pl. 7); plate Dallan. Colonnades, Arcades (Pl. xix); plate Kumbh, Stambh, Paeh, Tambh. Pillars (Pl. xx); plate Stone Trellis Work (Pl. xxi)

■ viii (folios 38–42) text Old Sarai at Himmutnuggur; plate Old Sarai called Himmut Nugger near Gow Ghát 8 miles from Agra on the old road to Muthura (Pl. 8); plate Dallan. Arcades (Pl. xxii); plate Gul, Phool, Kutaifa. Spandril Ornaments (Pl. xxiii); plate Jálí or Stone Trellis Work (Pl. xxiv)

■ ix (folios 43–47) text Temple of Kurkotuc Nàg; plate Ruins of the Temple of Kurkotuc Nàg in Bundelkund (Pl. 9); [plate Doorway of a Merchant’s House, City of Bunarus (Pl. xxv) lacking in this copy]; plate Tora, Gurria, Chirria. Brackets, Corbels (Pl. XXVI); plate Jalí or Stone Trellis Work (Pl. XXVII)

■ x (folios 48–52) text Sevalla, or Temple of Siva, Calpee; plate Temple and Fort at Calpee (Pl. 10); plate Sennundíí Begum’s Palace in the Enclosure of the Taj, Agra (Pl. xxviii); plate Tambh, Kumb, Stumbh, Paeh. Pillars, Pier, &. (Pl. xxix); plate Jálí or Stone Trelliswork (Pl. xxx)

■ x i (folios 53–57) text But-Eswur; plate But-Eswur (Pl. xi [sic]); plate Elevation of the Interior (north­ern face) of the Gateway of the Taj at Agra (Pl. xxxi); Kingra, or Parapets (Pl. xxxii); plate Jálí or Stone Trelliswork (Pl. xxxiii)

■ xii (folios 58–62) text Zinzírí Musjid at Jounpoor; plate Zinzírí Musjíd at Jounpŭr (Pl. 12); plate Dallan. Arcades, Colonnades (Pl. xxxiv); plate Kingra, Ornamental Parapets (Pl. xxxv); plate Jálí or Stone Trelliswork (Pl. xxxvi)

■ x iii text Mausoleum at Futtehpoor; (text refers to ‘Plate 13’, but there is no such plate in this copy, nor in the British Library copy, and it may not have been issued); plate Kuttaifa. Spandril Ornaments (Pl. xxxv [ii, last two numerals added by hand]); plate Kutaifa. Nask. Gúldista. Spandrils. Coins. Pinnacles (pl. xxxviii); plate Jálí or Stone Trelliswork (pl. xxxix)

■ [xiv–xvii, presumed contents] text Atala Musjid, Jounpur; plates numbered 41, 45, 48, 50–52, 54, 57, 60, 63, and eight unnumbered (or misnumbered) plates:

Numbered plates
plate Chaihee. Splays (Pl. xli)
plate Jálí or Stone Trellis Work (Pl. xlv)
plate Jálí or Stone Trellis Work (Pl. xlviii)
plate Chíníkháná. Niches, Ornamental Recesses (Pl. l)
plate Jálí or Stone Trellis Work (Pl. li)
plate Jálí or Stone Trellis Work (Pl. lii)
plate Jálí or Stone Trellis Work (Pl. liv)
plate Jálí or Stone Trellis Work (Pl. lvii)
plate Jálí or Stone Trellis Work (Pl. lx)
plate Jálí or Stone Trellis Work (Pl. lxiii)

Repetitively numbered plates (not identical to plates in fascicules vii and viii)
plate Torá. Curriá or Chirriá or Stone Brackets, Corbels (Pl. xx)
plate Jálí or Stone Trellis Work (Pl. xxiii)

Unnumbered plates
plate Sitún, Kumbh, Tambh. Pillars
plate Dasa, Jhalur. Plinth Ornaments, String-Courses
plate Sitún, Kumbh, Tambh. Pillars
plate Golá, Gùlzar. Beedings, String Courses
plate Gulzar, Kingrá, Kuttera. Ornamental Balustrades and Parapets
plate Sitún. Kumbh, Tambh. Pillars

1. The wrappers are printed in black from the same stone, lettered Illustrations of Indian Architecture from the Muhammadan Conquest Downwards [view of a temple, with publication line Oriental Lith.c Press | M. Kittoe Lith. | Calcutta 1838] Selected from a portfolio of Architectural Drawings, prepared with much care, and principally by regular measurements, from buildings at Agra, Delhi, Juanpur, Benares, Chunar and numerous other places in Upper India. By Markham Kittoe, Esq. [rule] Pub­lished by W. Thacker & Co. Calcutta 1838.

2. Lithography had been introduced in India in 1822. The Oriental Lithographic Press was established at 99 Durrumtollah, Calcutta, by Jean-Baptiste Tassin, in 1829 or 1830; see Graham Shaw, ‘Calcutta: Birthplace of the Indian Lithographed Book’ in Journal of Printing Historical Society 27 (1998), pp.89–111 (esp.107–108 on this press).

3. Mildred Archer, British Drawings in the India Office Library, volume i: Amateur artists (London 1969), pp.34–35.

4. The first eight parts are reviewed in The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register 32 (May–August 1840), p.145.

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