Wooden pavilion, shown in section, with massive red marble table-fountain and eight chair-fountains, engraving by Zacharias Lesche (258 × 160 mm, matrice) View larger
Wooden pavilion, shown in section, with massive red marble table-fountain and eight chair-fountains, engraving by Zacharias Lesche (258 × 160 mm, matrice)
Lesche (Zacharias), active 1640

Views of fountains, statuary and architecture in the Grand-Ducal gardens at Schloß Schlackenwerth, Bohemia

Bohemia?, c. 1642
A group of extremely rare prints depicting the gardens at Schlackenwerth, in north-western Bohemia (now Ostrov, Czech Republic), a property belonging Julius Heinrich von Sachsen-Lauenburg (1581-1665). Lesche, a “Gartenarchitekt und Wassertechniker”, apparently produced the matrices at the behest of Julius Heinrich, not with commercial intentions.
Subjects
Book illustration - Artists, German - Lesche (Zacharias), active 1642-1646
Garden design - Bohemia - Early works to 1800
Authors/Creators
Lesche, Zacharias, active 1642-1646
Artists/Illustrators
Lesche, Zacharias, active 1642-1646
Owners
Macclesfield, Earls of
Other names
Julius Heinrich von Sachsen-Lauenburg, 1581-1665

Lesche, Zacharias
fl. 1642–1646

Views of fountains, statuary and architecture in the Grand-Ducal gardens at Schloß Schlackenwerth, Bohemia

[Bohemia? circa 1642–1647]

group of eight etchings, of which three are signed with the name or monogram of Zacharias Lesche and five unsigned; gathered with two unrelated, anonymous prints (see appended list of prints). Sewn together to form a quire for binding (uniform sheet dimension, 315 × 200 mm)

paper two sizes of a watermark of crossed hammers (Zwei Hämmer gekreuzt; Deux marteau croisé) blazoned on a shield, with initial W beneath (43 × 38 mm, observed in prints iii, vii/viii; 35 × 40 mm, observed in print v); mark of crossed hammers alone (15 × 15 mm, observed in prints i, ii, iv, vi); no watermarks observed in the two unrelated prints.

Stain across one print (ii), otherwise good impressions in fine state of preservation.

provenance Earls of Macclesfield — sale by Sotheby’s, ‘The Library of the Earls of Macclesfield, removed from Shirburn Castle, Part Three’, London, 4 November 2004, lot 646 (part lot)

Preserved in a box.

A group of prints depicting water features and other ornaments in the magnificent Italianate gardens of Schloß Schlackenwerth near Carlsbad in north-western Bohemia (Ostrov nad Ohří, Czech Republic). The gardens were developed by Julius Heinrich von Sachsen-Lauenburg (1581–1665) in the grounds of the old Schlick (Šlik) castle, which he had acquired about 1623, and commenced to renovate in 1640.1 Lesche’s prints capture the appearance of the gardens at a very early stage, before the destruction of features situated on the southern bank of the Bystřička River (obliterated by a flood in August 1661) and the alterations (mostly in the French style) initiated by Julius Heinrich’s heir, Julius Franz, in 1673, and by Margrave Ludwig Wilhelm von Baden and his wife Sibylla Augusta (née Sachsen-Lauenburg), in 1691.2 Only a few garden structures and the walls defining the garden perimeter are now evident.

The author of the garden design has adopted the Italianate style of concentric circles of hedge enclosing a freestanding element, documented in Francesco Colonna’s Hypnerotomachia Poliphili (1499) and by then widely diffused; he also borrows, from uncertain sources, Italianate features similar to those appearing in the gardens of Bomarzo and the Villa d’Este in Tivoli.3 The set of engravings published in 1620 of the gardens attached to Heidelberg Castle (Hortus Palatinus) could be another source;4 familiarity with the garden designs published by Vredeman de Vries is also probable.5 It is unclear whether Zacharias Lesche himself laid out the garden: no plans or drawings of the gardens at this early stage of its development, or documents recording payments, which might identify the designer, have so far been located in the widely-distributed archives.6

Like many architects of his day, Lesche was also skilled as an engineer, surveyor and cartographer; his proficiency as a printmaker is more unusual. Nagler describes Lesche as ‘ein unbekannter Künstler’ and mentions only his prints of the Schlackenwerth gardens;7 two more etchings are recorded elsewhere: a large plan of Leipzig, produced by Lesche in collaboration with Carl Heinrich von der Osten,8 and a view of the fortifications of Pleissenburg near Leipzig (both are dated 1646).9

It is likely that Lesche's etchings of Schloß Schlackenwerth were produced at the behest of Julius Heinrich for his private distribution, since the matrices were retained within the family. A posthumous inventory of the Kunstkammer of Julius Heinrich’s granddaughter, Markgräfin Sibylla Augusta von Baden, who had spent her youth at Schlackenwerth, records ‘21 groß undt kleine kupfer platten, auf eine der Herzog von Sachsen Lauenburg Julius Franciskus hochst seel. gedächtnus zu pferdt, die übrigen theilß gebäute, gärten, fontainen, undt devise.’10

An album in Universitätsbibliothek Salzburg containing twenty-two prints may document the full set of matrices.11 Prominent in the Salzburg album are two large prints, neither of which is present in our group. One is a large, unsigned and uncompleted plan of Schloß Schlackenwerth and adjacent gardens, its two large cartouches left empty of lettering.12 Merian’s bird’s-eye view appears to have been derived from it, or else from the original drawing.13 The other large print is a plan of the most decorative part of the garden, the so-called ‘White Court’; it is signed A. 1642 Zacharias Lesche InVentor. E. Exc.14 Also contained in the Salzburg album are prints by Lesche and by two printmakers who sign respectively as AR exe and Augustus Ranich fecit, JM, J Muller scul, and Joh. Müller sc. It could be that August Ranich and Johann Müller worked at Schlackenwerth beside Lesche, or were employed there soon after his departure.15

Judging by published reproductions, the impressions in the Salzburg album are weakly printed; some are pulled from cracked or otherwise damaged matrices, and it seems that they were taken long after ours, toward the end of the 17th century, or later.16 One of the garden features was re-engraved. Our print of the Neptune fountain and cascade is signed by Lesche and dated 1642; it may show this water feature as it was projected in that year, within a portal typical of an Italian Mannerist garden. An unsigned print of the same feature in the Salzburg album presents a very different design without any portal; the legend below announces that the cascade fell for exactly 26 feet, so it likely that it depicts the fountain as it was eventually realised (see list of prints below).

All eight prints in our group depict individual gardens structures and ornaments in the gardens. Four bear numbers which refer to garden features  depicted in miniature on the large plan of the 'White Court':

1: fountain with a basin forming an eight-pointed star, with a mermaid seated on each point; the principal jet emerging from the tails of two entwined dolphins (see list of prints below, our ■ ii) — 2: fountain with a balustraded basin, the higher of two jets emerging from a sea monster elevated upon a rock; another figure issuing an umbrella-shaped cascade (our ■ iii) — 3: fountain with a basin formed by a quatrefoil combined with a square; a statue in the centre, a water jet in each of the four lobes (not among our prints)17 — 4: octagonal pavilion on the third terrace of the ‘White Court’, supported by four caryatids and hermes (our ■ i) — 5: square pavilion on the third terrace, one of set identically numbered on the plan (our ■ vii)

The four other prints in our group depict features situated outside the ‘White Court’, and thus bear no numbers:

Pavilion with an onion dome, situated in the western part of the garden, shown in section, featuring a massive, octagonal red marble table-fountain, sunk below the level of the floor, and surrounded by a channel of water; and an observation gallery reached by internal stairs (our ■ vi) — Portal in the town wall, featuring a figure of Neptune with a vessel under his right arm from which water cascades down a flight of steps (our ■ iv) — Fountain of Adam and Eve under the Tree of Knowledge, on a square, terraced bed bordered by box hedges; jets play from their genitals, and also from the apple offered by the serpent (our ■ v)18 — Garden sundial (our ■ viii)

Provisional census

These impressions can be traced by the writer

● (formerly) Ansbach, Schlossbibliothek: ‘Das Fürstl: Schloß und Lustgarthen zu Sclaccowerdt in Böhmen, in Kupffer gestochen’, listed in a posthumous inventory of the library of Markgraf Johann Friedrich von Brandenburg-Ansbach (1654–1686)19

● (reputedly) Copenhagen, Kongelige Bibliotek, Nationalbibliotek og Københavns Universitets­bibliotek, 15, 116: ‘Prospect des … Herrn Julii Heinrici Hertzogen zu Sachsen Engern undt Westphalen Residentschlosses und erbaueten Lustgartens zue Sclaccowerdt im Könichreich Behmen’, an album of 27 leaves (contents not ascertained)20

● Halle, Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Sachsen-Anhalt, Signatur: 79 M 207: an album of 20 prints21

● (formerly) Prague, Sammlung Sternberg-Manderscheid: ‘8 Bl. Darstellungen künstlicher Brunnen und Wasserwerke eines (wahrscheinlich sächsischen) Lustgartens, erfunden und radirt von Zacharias Lechse’22

● Salzburg, Universitätsbibliothek, G 413/ I (formerly ‘K.K. Studien Bibliothek Salzburg’ and Signatur I.T.3.A.704): ‘Wasserkünste, Kupferstich-Sammelband; um 1642, 22 Bll., verschiedene Formate’23

● (reputedly) Žlutice, Státní oblastni archiv v Plzeň (State archive Pilsen, Luditz office): ‘Plänen des Schloßparks von 1642’ (contents not ascertained)24

further literature Lubomír Zeman, ‘Zámecký park v Ostrově’ in Historický sborník Karlovarsk, III (Karlovy Vary: Státní okresní archiv, 1995), pp.110–146

List of Prints

plate (i) 

(i) pavilion on the terrace of the ‘White Court’, supported by four caryatids and hermes, one bearing a shield emblazoned with Saxon insignia
(168 × 143 mm, matrice), numbered upper right: 4 with scale below 1–10 Sch[uhe]
Salzburg impression: Kulhánková Fig. 5

Comparative illustration: a detail from Merian’s view of the garden25

Comparative illustration: a detail from Lesche’s view of the garden26
(image source)

plate (ii)

(ii) fountain, the highest jet emerging from the entwined tails of two dolphins in an elevated round basin, another basin beneath in the shape of an eight-point star, with a mermaid on each point emitting a jet into the superior basin
(240 × 160 mm, matrice), numbered lower left: 1 with scale below 1–5 Schuh
Salzburg impression: Kulhánková Fig. 4

Comparative illustration: a detail from Merian’s view of the garden27

Comparative illustration: a detail from Lesche’s view of the garden28
(image source)

plate (iii)

(iii) Fountain, the higher of two jets emerging from the nose of a sea monster elevated upon a rock; another figure with cascade in the shape of an umbrella, both within a rectangular balustraded basin
(114 × 200 mm, matrice), numbered lower left: 2
Salzburg impression: not reproduced by Gnirs or Kulhánková

Comparative illustration: a detail from Merian’s view of the garden29

Comparative illustration: a detail from Lesche’s view of the garden30
(image source)

plate (iv)

(iv) fountain: Neptune reclining
(210 × 160 mm, matrice), signed Zacharias Lesche scup 1642 and lettered (on two lines) Neptunus hier mit wassers crufft: / das dessen weder tag noch nacht | 4. mielen thüt Regiren: / kein mangel Zü ver spiren
This print is not in the Salzburg album; an impression is reported in Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett der Staatlichen Museen.31

Comparative illustration: unsigned print in the Salzburg album, lacking the architecture of the portal (Gnirs Abb. 349; Kulhánková Fig. 8), lettered Neptunus hier mit Wassers Kraft / Das dessen weder tag noch nacht | Vier mielen thut regiren / kein mangell zu verspieren | 26 Schuch das wasser falt / Gar hoch mit ungestiemer gewalt.

Comparative illustration: a detail from Merian's view of the garden

Comparative illustration: a detail from Lesche’s view of the garden32
(image source)

plate (v)

(v) fountain: Adam and Eve beneath the Tree of Knowledge, with the Serpent tempting Eve to eat the apple
(136 × 152 mm, matrice)
Salzburg impression: Gnirs Abb. 348; Kulhánková Fig. 9
The position of this water-based feature on a terraced bed is not certain; it may be the feature situated in an irregular space in the northern corner of a grid of arbours with corridors planted with trees:

Comparative illustration: a detail from the 1642 plan / 1886 Murjahn copy33
(image source)

Comparative illustration: a detail from Merian’s view of the garden34

Comparative illustration: a detail from Lesche’s view of the garden35
(image source)

plate (vi)

(vi) wooden pavilion, shown in section, with massive red marble table-fountain and eight chair-fountains, sunk below the level of the floor, and surrounded by a water channel
(258 × 160 mm, matrice), lettered: Die tafel und stiele sint von Rotten Marmöl and signed with monogram: z l sc
Salzburg impression: Gnirs p.127 (‘der große Lusthausbaw im untern Garten’) and Abb. 307; Kulhánková p.230 and Fig. 11
In 1673, Julius Heinrich’s heir, Julius Franz (1641–1689), employed the architects Abraham Leuthner and Christoph Dientzenhofer to replace this pavilion with a ‘Neue Lustgebäude’ in which the treasures of the Kunstkammer could be displayed (completed 1683).36

Detail from our impression

Comparative illustration: a detail from Merian’s view of the garden

Comparative illustration: a detail from Lesche’s view of the garden37
(image source)

plate (vii)

(vii) Left: pavilion
(156 × 98 mm, matrice), numbered right: 5
Imposed beside print viii
One of a set of four identical pavilions situated on the upper terrace of the ‘White Court’, of which three are identified with the numeral 5 on the general plan.

Comparative illustration: a detail from Merian’s view of the garden38

Comparative illustration: a detail from Lesche’s view of the garden39
(image source)

plate (viii)


(
viii) Right: armillary sphere garden sundial
(124 × 113 mm, matrice), signed bottom right with monogram zl
Imposed beside print vii

Detail from our impression

The location in the garden of this sundial is uncertain; it could be the dial shown on the ‘Prospect’ in the upper garden, divided into nine bordered squares by gravel walks, and otherwise ornamented by animal-fountains.

Comparative illustration: a detail from Lesche’s view of the garden40
(image source)

unrelated prints

(1) anonymous engraving depicting the marble and alabaster funeral monument (Doppel­grab) for Johann Friedrich der Großmüthige, Kurfürst von Sachsen (1503–1554), and his wife Sibylle von Jülich-Kleve-Berg (1512–1554), installed in the Stadtkirche zu St. Peter und Paul (Herderkirche), Weimar41
(255 × 153 mm, matrice), with the inscriptional epitaphs transcribed as legends on the print:

Im 1554 Jahr den Dritten Martij, zwischen Neun und Zehen Uhr vor Mittag, ist der Durchleuchtigste, Hochgeborne fürst und Herr, Herr Johann Friederich der Elter, Herzog zu Sachsen vnd geborner Churfürst, Landgraf in Thüringen, Marggrav zu Meißen [etc.] von dieser Welt abgeschieden, in Christo selig entschlaffen, und ligt alhie begraben

(2) anonymous engraving, [1636]
(190 × 162 mm, matrice), lettered (acrostic) Commissarivs [est] Creatura Omnibus Mortalibus Molesta Invertens Statum Statuum Auferens Romano Imperio Vitam Sanguinemque
Other impressions: Nürnberg, Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Graphische Sammlung, HB716;42 unlocated (formerly Leipzig, Leipziger Kunst-Comptoir / W. Drugulin)43

This definition of an imperial commissary as ‘a creature troublesome to all mortals’ occurs in an entry made by Philip Hainhofer in his travel diary, at Augsburg, in 1636.44

1. ‘The garden composition aimed to represent its owner and express his education and knowledge­ability in the field of fine arts’, according to Zora Kulhánková, ‘The garden in Ostrov nad Ohří as an example of European garden design development’ in Studies in the History of Gardens & Designed Landscapes: An International Quarterly 32 (2012), pp.214–239 (quotation p.219); cf. Michel Wenger, ‘Die Gärten der Herzöge von Sachsen-Lauenburg in Schlackenwerth: Gartenkunst von europäischem Format’ in Barockes Erbe. Markgräfin Sibylla Augusta von Baden-Baden und ihre böhmische Heimat (Stuttgart 2010), pp.75–95. Julius Heinrich filled his castle with works of art; see the posthumous inventory published by Anna Maria Renner, ‘Schloss Schlackenwerth, die Heimat der Markgräfin Sibylla Augusta von Baden. Nach dem Schlossinventar von 1685’ in Zeitschrift für die Geschichte des Oberrheins, N.F., 54 (1941), pp.503–572; Anton Gnirs, Topographie der historischen und kunstgeschichtlichen Denkmale in dem Bezirke Karlsbad (Prague 1933), edited by Collegium Carolinum (Munich 1996), pp.130–135.

2. The mature gardens and new structures are shown in a ‘Prospect Des Hochfürstlichen Marggraff Baadischen Residenz Schlosses sambt fürstl. Lustgarten und Stadt Schlackenwerth. Joann Michael Sockh, Ingeni delinea ao 1716’ (image) and accompanying ‘Veuës En Perspective de la Residence et de tous les Compartimens du Jardin de Slackenwerth. Situé dans le Roiaume de Pohëme appartenant à Son Altesse Sereni.me Madame la Margrave de Baaden Baaden, desiné par Jean Michele Sockh Ingenieur, ab 1715’ (Karlsruhe, Landesarchiv Baden-Württemberg, Abt. Generallandesarchiv Karlsruhe, Hfk-Hs Nr. 252; catalogue); cf. Gnirs, op. cit., pp.102, 185–186 (note 191) and Abb. 264, 329–346.

3. ‘The garden is a unique example proving the influence of the Italian garden beyond the Alps’, according to Kulhánková, op. cit., pp.220–221, 226–227, 235.

4. Sylva Dobalová, ‘Zacharias Lesche, Salomon de Caus z Ostrova nad Ohří?’ in Libellus amicorum Beket Bukovinská, edited by Lubomír Konečný and Lubomír Slavíček (Prague 2013), pp.288–297.

5. Lubomír Zeman, ‘Bludiště a labyrinty v ostrovské zámecké zahradě’ in Ingredere Hospes. Sborník Národního památkového ústavu územního odborného pracoviště v Kroměříži 5 (2012), pp.77–112 (web access).

6. Anna Maria Renner, ‘Das herzoglich sachsen-lauenburgische und markgräflich badische Herrschaftsarchiv Schlackenwert’ in Zeitschrift für die Geschichte des Oberrheins, Neue Folge, 56 (1943), p. m55.

7. Georg K. Nagler, Neues allgemeines Künstler-Lexicon (Munich 1839), vii, p.382 (q.v. Lecshe): ‘ein unbekannter Künstler, welcher eine Folge von wenigstens 9 Blättern Darstellungen künstlicher Brun­nen und Wasserwerke eines Lustgarten nach eigener Erfindung radirt hat. Diese Folge war in der Sammlung des Grafen Sternberg-Manderscheid, und Frenzel stellt im Cataloge jener berühmten Sammlung die Vermuthung auf, dass dieses Darstellungen aus einem sächsischen Lustgarten seien, weil an einer Figur das sächsische Wappen sich befindet. Die Blätter haben ein Monogramm, 4. und fol.’. Cf. G.K. Nagler, Die Monogrammisten (Munich 1879), v, p.420 no. 2099 (q.v. Lechse): ‘circa zehn Blättern mit Darstellungen von Zierbrunnen und Gartendecorationen’.

8. Caption: Oberreicht durch Zacharias Leschen Ingenieurn und Carll Heinrich von der Osten Condukteur Anno 1646. Cf. Leipzig im Kartenbild (Leipzig 2001), pp.174–175; an impression (475 × 605 mm) in Stadtgeschichtliches Museum Leipzig, Inventarnummer L 10/1 (image).

9. Letterpress broadside (366× 292 mm) with engraved vignette (106 × 207 mm) signed Zacharia Leschen Ingenieurn, drop-head title: Sonnet [by Tobias Clausnitzer] über H. Zacharias Leschens/sc Ingeneurs entworffenen Abriß Der Vestung Pleissenburg bey der Stadt Leipzig (Leipzig: Henning Kölern, 1646); copy in Stadtgeschichtliches Museum Leipzig, Inventar­nummer 353 (image; image); reproduced by Dobalová, op. cit., fig.5.

10. Generallandesarchiv Karlsruhe, 47/1996, transcribed by Anna Maria Renner, Die Kunstinventare der Markgrafen von Baden-Baden, Beiträge zur Geschichte des Oberrheins, 1 (Bühl-Baden 1941), pp.38, 133, 260 (entry 292).

11. Renner, op. cit., 1943, p. m55; Gnirs, op. cit., pp.192–193 (note 283).

12. ‘Prospect des Durchleuchtigen Hochgebornen Fürsten und Herrn Herrn Julij Heinrici Hertzogen zu Sachsen Engern undt Westphalen Resident Schlosses und Erbaueten Lustgartens zue Sclaccowerdt im Könichre. Behm’ (Gnirs, op. cit., Abb. 262, from the impression in Salzburg, Universitätsbibliothek, G 413 / I; see provisional census). A copy of the Salzburg impression drawn by Heinrich Murjahn for Johannes Friese (‘Aus der k.k. Studien Bibliothek zu Salzburg 1642 für die Friese’sche Sammlung. H. Murjahn. 1886’) is in the Elbschiffahrtsmuseum Lauenburg (image).

13. Matthäus Merian and Martin Zeiller, Topographia Bohemiae, Moraviae et Silesiae (Frankfurt am Main 1650), p.74 (image); cf. Lucas Heinrich Wüthrich, Das druckgraphische Werk von Matthaeus Merian d. Ae (Hamburg 1996), iv, p.302. Caspar Merian’s print (375 × 240 mm) was copied in turn for Abraham Hogenberg’s Hortorvm viridariorvmqve (Cologne 1655); see Wunder und Wissenschaft: Salomon de Caus und die Automatenkunst in Gärten um 1600, catalogue of an exhibition held in the Museum für Europäische Gartenkunst der Stiftung Schloss und Park Benrath, 17 August–5 October 2008, Düsseldorf 2008, p.241 Abb. 4).

14. Title, within a cartouche: ‘Abris eines theils von Julij Heinrichs Hertzogens zu Saxen Eng: v. westph: erbaueten Lustgarten zu Schlackenwerd im Königreich Bömen mit beiverzeichten numeris wo ein iedes Stuck zu finden (the impression in Salzburg, Universitätsbibliothek, G 413 / I, is reproduced by Gnirs, op. cit., p.102 and Abb. 261; Kulhánková, op. cit., p.219 and Fig. 3). Four Latin distichs praising the beauty of the garden are engraved along the top of the plan. These distich were perhaps added to the matrice at a later date, since they are printed – together with a fifth distich, which is not on the etched plan: Piscifero in medio saliunt in flumine pisces / Et rapidâ oehitur advenu quisque rate – in Michael-Raphael Schmuzen’s Tractatus novus de nymphis Carolo-Badensibus admirabilibus in regno Bohemiae ([Prague?] 1661), p.6. For English translations of the four distichs on the etched plan, see Kulhánková, op. cit., p.219. Another literary description of the garden appears in Bohuslav Balbin, Miscellanea Historica Regni Bohemiae (Prague 1679), i, p.101 (‘De hortis Bohemiæ… Saxonis Lavvenburgici’).

15. Renner, Die Kunstinventare (op. cit.), 1941, p.38, 284, identifies Isaac [sic] Müller as ‘Entwerfer phantasievoller Garten- und Wasserkünste’ and ‘der bisher unbekannte Stecher Augustus Ranich’ as ‘Plastiker und Stecher’; Kulhánková, op. cit., p.216, identifies Müller as ‘Johann M. Müller’. Gnirs, op. cit., p.142, identifies ‘August Ranich’ as ‘Bildhauer und Zeichner in Schlackenwerth (Mitte 17. Jh.)’.

16. Most of the 22 (unnumbered) prints contained in the Salzburg album are reproduced by Gnirs and Kulhánková: ■ 1 Water feature in the form of a ship, lettered Das Shiff in dem Furstlichen Lust Garten zu Sclaccowerd mit seinen Spring Wassern (Gnirs Abb. 355) ■ 2 Sculptural group representing the Abduction of Deianira, its pedestal ornamented with Sachsen-Lauenburg insignia, signed with monogram AR ex and lettered Pferts Höhe Manes Grese (Gnirs Abb. 353) ■ 3 Fountain in the form of a mountain with two waterfalls, lettered Diese Berg ist 20 schuch hoch (Gnirs Abb. 356) ■ 4 Not reproduced by Gnirs ■ 5 Fountain in the form of Adam and Eve under the Tree of Knowledge (Gnirs Abb. 348; Kulhánková Fig. 5) ■ 6 Not reproduced by Gnirs ■ 7 Not reproduced by Gnirs ■ 8 Pavilion (the so-called ‘alte Lustgebäude’), shown in section, signed ZL and lettered Die tafel und stile sint von Rotten Marmol (Gnirs Abb. 307; Kulhánková Fig. 11) ■ 9 Fountain featuring Neptune and a long waterfall, lettered Neptunus hier mit Wassers Kraft / Vier mielen thut regiren | Das dessen weder tag noch nacht / kein mangell zu verspieren | 26 Schuch das wasser falt / Gar hoch mit ungestiemer gewalt. (Gnirs Abb. 349; Kulhánková Fig. 8) ■ 10 Design of a multi-storied trellis on an oval ground plan, signed JM (Gnirs Abb. 325) ■ 11 Fountain with basin in the form of an eight-point star (Gnirs Abb. 357; Kulhánková Fig. 4) ■ 12 Water feature with Hercules slaying the Hydra above a cave with working miners, and dragon-fountain (Gnirs Abb. 351) ■ 13 Pavilion supported by caryatids and hermes, one bearing Sachsen-Lauenburg insignia (Gnirs Abb. 328; Kulhánková Fig. 5) ■ 14 Statues of Prometheus and Atlas, signed Joh. Muller (Gnirs Abb. 350; Kulhánková Fig. 13) ■ 15 Not reproduced by Gnirs ■ 16 Three garden houses in the Dutch manner, each with Sachsen-Lauenburg insignia above the door (Gnirs Abb. 326; Kulhánková Fig. 10) ■ 17 Sundial-fountain with two spectators, lettered Hundert und neun Springende Wasser in diser Postur – Geben mit dem zaiger die Gantze Horizontal Vhr and compass points (Gnirs Abb. 327) ■ 18 Grotto dug into the wall of the Terraces of the ‘White Court’ with ceiling inscription ‘Sup Rosa Germana Fides 1647’, lettered Augustus Ranich fecit and [25?] schue die höhe / 29 die breiten (Gnirs Abb. 354; Kulhánková Fig. 6) ■ 19 Sundial-fountain with the signs of the zodiac around the perimeter and in centre a monumental statue of Heracles with his club, signed Zacharias Lecshe inv and lettered Das grosse Bilt ist lebens gros und / der Brunnen ist 30 schuch (Gnirs Abb. 352; Kulhánková Fig. 7) ■ 20 Plan of the south part of the garden, signed J. Muller scul (Gnirs Abb. 266; Kulhánková Fig. 2) ■ 21 Plan lettered Prospect des Durchleuchtigen Hochgebornen Fürsten und Herrn Herrn Julij Heinrici Hertzogen zu Sachsen Engern undt Westphalen Resident Schlosses und Erbaueten Lustgartens zue Sclaccowerdt in Könichre. Behm (Gnirs Abb. 262; see note 7 above) ■ 22 Plan lettered Abris eines theils von Julij Heinrichs Hertzogens zu Saxen Eng: v. westph: erbaueten Lustgarten zu Schlackenwerd im Königreich Bömen mit beiverzeichten numeris wo ein iedes Stuck zu fin den and signed A. 1642. Zacharias Lesche InVentor. E. Exc. (Gnirs Abb. 261; Kulhánková Fig. 3; see note 8 above). Kulhánková reproduces as Fig. 12 one of the four prints (4, 6, 7, 15) not reproduced by Gnirs; it depicts a circular pond with a high fountain in its centre (lettered Vbern Diame: 260 Schueh) and is attributed by Kulhánková to Johann Müller (pp.231–233, 239 note 27).

17. No print recording this fountain is known.

18. Gnirs, op. cit., Abb. 348; Kulhánková, op. cit., p.227 and Fig. 9.

19. Nuremberg, Staatsarchiv, Rep. 103a III (Geheimregistratur, Bamberger Zugang), Nr. 71: ‘Hochfürst­lich Brandenburgisch Onolzbachisches Inventarium de Anno 1686’ p.902 (cited by Martin Pozsgai, ‘Die anderen im Bücherschrank. Das Bild von den Residenzen Europas im Spiegel fürstlicher Privatbibliotheken des 17. und 18. Jahrhunderts’ in Atelier. Vorbild, Austausch, Konkurrenz. Höfe und Residenzen in der gegenseitigen Wahrnehmung, edited by Anna Paulina Orlowska, Werner Paravicini and Jörg Wettlaufer (Kiel 2009), pp.111–118 (note 495).

20. Library opac (catalogue).

21. Library opac (catalogue); digital library (images). Four of the prints in our group are not in this album (nos. iii, iv, vii, viii).

22. J.G.A. Frenzel, ‘Sammlung der Kupferstiche und Handzeichnungen Sr Excellenz des Herrn Grafen Franz v. Sternberg-Manderscheid’, Dresden, 9 May 1836, lot 1138. The full entry reads: ‘8 Bl. Darstellungen künstlicher Brunnen und Wasserwerke eines (wahrscheinlich sächsischen)* [‘* Wegen des an einer Figur befindlichen Sächs. Wappens’] Lustgartens, erfunden und radirt von Zacharias Lechse. fol. et 4to. Mehre Bl. gering und colorirt’.

23. Library opac (catalogue). Renner, Die Kunstinventare (op. cit.), 1941, p.38 (note 15): ‘Ein Großoktavband enthält ohne Titel 22 Blätter; sie geben Teil- und Gesamtansichten und Einzelheiten der Gartenarchitektur und Plastik. Eine Studie über dies Gartenwerk wird von der Verfasserin vorbereitet’. Cf. Renner, op. cit., 1943, p. m55; Gnirs, op. cit., p.102 and Abb. 261–262, 266, 307, 325–328, 348–357 (18 prints reproduced); Kulhánková, op. cit., Figs. 2–13 (12 prints reproduced). In addition to the ‘Prospect’ (see above, note 6), Heinrich Murjahn copied circa 1886 eleven prints in the Salzburg album; see Josef Kühnl, Geschichte der Stadt Schlackenwerth, der ehemaligen Residenz der Herzoge von Lauenburg und der Markgrafen von Baden (Schlackenwerth 1923); Gnirs, op. cit., p.192. These drawings are now in the Státní oblastni archiv v Plzeň in Žlutice. Two sheets are reproduced by Jarmila Krčálová, ‘Kasny, fontány a vodní díla ceské a moravské renesance’ in Umeni 21 (1973), pp.536–538, 540 (note 64) figs. 7–8 (depicting respectively the ‘ship’ fountain and ‘Hercules’ fountain; see above note 18, nos. 1 and 18).

24. Gnirs, op. cit., p.192 (note 283): ‘Plänen des Schloßparks von 1642’.

25. Matthaeus Merian, Topographia Bohemiae, Moraviae et Silesiae (Frankfurt 1650), p.74 (full image).

26. ‘Abris eines theils von Julij Heinrichs Hertzogens zu Saxen Eng: v. westph: erbaueten Lustgarten zu Schlackenwerd im Königreich Bömen mit beiverzeichten numeris wo ein iedes Stuck zu finden’, detail from impression in Halle, Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Sachsen-Anhalt, Signatur: 79 M 207 (image).

27. Matthaeus Merian, Topographia Bohemiae, Moraviae et Silesiae (Frankfurt 1650), p.74 (full image).

28. ‘Abris eines theils von Julij Heinrichs Hertzogens zu Saxen Eng: v. westph: erbaueten Lustgarten zu Schlackenwerd im Königreich Bömen mit beiverzeichten numeris wo ein iedes Stuck zu finden’, detail from impression in Halle, Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Sachsen-Anhalt, Signatur: 79 M 207 (image).

29. Matthaeus Merian, Topographia Bohemiae, Moraviae et Silesiae (Frankfurt 1650), p.74 (full image).

30. ‘Abris eines theils von Julij Heinrichs Hertzogens zu Saxen Eng: v. westph: erbaueten Lustgarten zu Schlackenwerd im Königreich Bömen mit beiverzeichten numeris wo ein iedes Stuck zu finden’, detail from impression in Halle, Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Sachsen-Anhalt, Signatur: 79 M 207 (image).

31. ‘Neptungrotte. Kuperstich. Bez. u. r.: Zacharias Lesche scug [sic] 1642’; see Zauber des Ornament, catalogue of an exhibition, compiled by Renate Kroll (Berlin 1969), p.91 no. 220 (not reproduced).

32. ‘Prospect des Durchleuchtigen Hochgebornen Fürsten und Herrn Herrn Julii Heinrici Hertzogen zu Sachsen Engern und Westphalen; Resident Schlosses und Erbaueten Lustgartens zue Sclaccowerdt im Könichre Behm’, detail from impression in Halle, Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Sachsen-Anhalt, Signatur: 79 M 207 (image).

33. See above, notes 9 and 23 (image).

34. Matthaeus Merian, Topographia Bohemiae, Moraviae et Silesiae (Frankfurt 1650), p.74 (full image).

35. ‘Prospect des Durchleuchtigen Hochgebornen Fürsten und Herrn Herrn Julii Heinrici Hertzogen zu Sachsen Engern und Westphalen; Resident Schlosses und Erbaueten Lustgartens zue Sclaccowerdt im Könichre Behm’, detail from impression in Halle, Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Sachsen-Anhalt, Signatur: 79 M 207 (image).

36. Gnirs, op. cit., pp.127, 139.

37. ‘Prospect des Durchleuchtigen Hochgebornen Fürsten und Herrn Herrn Julii Heinrici Hertzogen zu Sachsen Engern und Westphalen; Resident Schlosses und Erbaueten Lustgartens zue Sclaccowerdt im Könichre Behm’, detail from impression in Halle, Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Sachsen-Anhalt, Signatur: 79 M 207 (image).

38. Matthaeus Merian, Topographia Bohemiae, Moraviae et Silesiae (Frankfurt 1650), p.74 (full image).

39. ‘Abris eines theils von Julij Heinrichs Hertzogens zu Saxen Eng: v. westph: erbaueten Lustgarten zu Schlackenwerd im Königreich Bömen mit beiverzeichten numeris wo ein iedes Stuck zu finden’, detail from impression in Halle, Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Sachsen-Anhalt, Signatur: 79 M 207 (image).

40. ‘Prospect des Durchleuchtigen Hochgebornen Fürsten und Herrn Herrn Julii Heinrici Hertzogen zu Sachsen Engern und Westphalen; Resident Schlosses und Erbaueten Lustgartens zue Sclaccowerdt im Könichre Behm’, detail from impression in Halle, Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Sachsen-Anhalt, Signatur: 79 M 207 (image).

41. ‘Das Grabmal Johann Friedrichs des Großmüthigen und seiner Gemahlin Sybilla’ in Saxonia. Museum fur sachsische Vaterlandskunde 19 (February 1835), pp.85–86; Anja Löffler, ‘Das Fürstengrab in der Weimarer Stadtkirche St. Peter und Paul (Herderkirche): Kunstgeschichte, Liturgie, Restaurierung’ in Aus der Arbeit des Thüringischen Landesamtes für Denkmalpflege und Archäologie (2010) pp.42–46 (link).

42. Online catalogue: ‘Ein Kriegskommissar am Zähltisch. Links an einer Tafel Akrostichon: “Creatura omnibus Mortalibus...” … um 1636’ (image; image); cf. Denkschriften des Germanischen Nationalmuseum, Erster Band: Das Germanische National­museum: Organismus und Sammlungen. Zweite Abtheilung: Kunst- und Alterthums-Sammlungen (Nuremberg & Leipzig 1856), p.56: “Commissarius, Creatura Omnibus Mortalibus Molesta Invertens Statum Statuum Auferens Romano Imperio Vitam Sanguinemque. 17. Jhdt. Kpfrst.’ (catalogue).

43. Wilhelm Eduard Drugulin, Historischer Bilderatlas: Verzeichnis einer Sammlung von Einzelblättern zur Kultur- und Staatengeschichte vom fünizehnten bis in- das neunsehnte jahrhundert (Leipzig 1867), p.188: ‘1636 … Kriegscommissar am Zähltisch: An der Stuhllehne hängt ein Fuchspelz. Links an einer Tafel Akrostichon: Creatura. Omnibus. Mortalibus etc. 4. (21l1)’.

44. Cf. Christian Häutle, ‘Hainhofers Reisen nach München und Neuburg a D. in den Jahren 1613, 1614 und 1636’ in Zeitschrift des Historischen Vereins für Schwaben und Neuburg 8 (1881), pp.296–297 (from folio 73 verso of ‘Relatio Philippi Hainhoferi Seiner von Augsburg nacher München in Frstl. Braunschweigischen Geschäftten Verrichteten Rayse. Anno 1636’): ‘Wie Ich von dem Alten hof durch die Statt gienge, hab Ich die zue Augspurg aine Zeit lang geweste, vnnd vom Luca Kilian in kupfer gestochene Conterfetete Gayssel fayl sehen haben, solche zu erinnerung vorigen betrüebten vnwesens gleich auch erkhauffen vnnd hiebey legen wöllen. Bey so vilerley Cantzleyen vnnd bey ietziger Zeit deroselben menge Kriegs- gellt- prouiaut- munition- hospitaler- Rüst- vnnd Wagenzeug-commissariorum habe ich mich erinnert der definition, welche per iocum et vexatione nach den 12 Buechstaben dess Worts Commissarius inventiert worden und also lauttet: Commissarius est creatura omnibus mortalibus molesta, ignorans statum status, auferens romano imperio vitam sanguinemque.’ (text). Cf. Anne Langenkamp, Philipp Hainhofers Münchner Reisebeschreibungen: eine kritische Ausgabe (Berlin 1990), i, p.274 (and notes 85–86).

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