Print 13 (397/400 × 552/560 mm) View larger
Print 13 (397/400 × 552/560 mm)
Charles V, King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor

La cavalcata dell’Imperator Carlo V nel suo ingresso in Bologna [uniform title]

Venice, 1530 (1 July)

A multi-block woodcut print depicting Charles V’s triumphal entry into Bologna on 5 November 1529, in anticipation of his coronation by Pope Clement VII as Holy Roman Emperor, on his 30th birthday (24 February 1530). The individual woodcuts show a continuous parade of nobility, standard-bearers and heralds, musicians, knights in armour on horseback, arquebusiers, halberdiers, pikemen, and riders drawing artillery, moving from right to left. They were intended to be joined together laterally to form a frieze nearly nine metres long, and when fixed to the wall of a room, or assembled as a scroll, the print offered a panorama where the onlooker could see – or see once again, if he had been present – the whole cortège pass before his eyes. Descriptive captions, cut in separate wood blocks and printed in the upper margins, guided the viewer along; near the end of the frieze, he would read ‘Stampata in uenetia a di p.° Iulio 1530’ (Printed in Venice, 1 July 1530).

Multi-sheet, ‘mural’ prints are notoriously susceptible to destruction and loss. Of this woodcut, just six other impressions are recorded, preserved in public collections in Florence (Uffizi), Ghent (University Library), London (British Museum; British Library), Paris (Bibliothèque nationale de France), and Vienna (Albertina). The complete complement of sixteen sheets is found in only two sets (Uffizi and British Library), the latter printed many decades later, after the blocks had become severely damaged by woodworm. The other sets, like ours, are deficient to varying extents. Since the complete date (1 July 1530) is not present on any other impression, our print appears to be a unique survivor of the earliest known state.

Subjects
Festival books and prints - Italy
Festival books and prints - Italy, 1501-1600 - Bologna, Entry of Charles V
Authors/Creators
Charles V, King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor
Owners
Gourary, Paul, 1919-2007
Mejan, Étienne Pierre, comte, 1766-1846
Other names
Antonio da Trento, c. 1510-c. 1550
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, 1500-1558

Charles V, King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor

La cavalcata dell’Imperator Carlo V nel suo ingresso in Bologna [uniform title]

Venice, 1 July 1530

multi-block woodcut print (12 of 16 sheets only, lacking [1]-[4]), broadsheets, each c. 395 × 555 mm, with xylographic text printed from separate blocks. Coloured by a contemporary, possibly German hand.

watermark observed in print [16]: crowned double-headed eagle (height c. 55/60 mm).

provenance Étienne Pierre, comte Mejan (1766-1846) – Josef Aumüller, Catalog einer vorzüglichen Sammlung von Kupferstichen, Radirungen, Holzschnitten, Aquarellen, Handzeichnungen, Miniaturen, Büchern, Werken und Oelgemälden etc., wobei die von dem verstorbenen Herrn Grafen von Mejan hinterlassene, Munich, 30 July-2 August 1858, lot 3901reputedly L’Art Ancien, Zürich, sold in 1959 ($1040) to – Paul Gourary (1919-2007) – Christie’s, Splendid Ceremonies: The Paul and Marianne Gourary Collection of Illustrated Fête Books, New York, 12 June 2009, lot 35 (link)

condition Discolouring along the lateral edges suggests that the sheets were once pasted together to form a frieze; cropping on all four sides, most seriously along the right edge of print [13], where several letters in each line of the caption are trimmed away; defects in prints [5], [14], [16] repaired; other minor faults, including browning and staining. Occasional strengthening of lines in pen and black ink. All but print [16] laid to 19th-century paper supports.

Individually hinged onto mounts; preserved in a quarter-morocco box.

A multi-block woodcut print by an unidentified artist depicting Charles V’s triumphal entry into Bologna on 5 November 1529, in anticipation of his coronation by Pope Clement VII as Holy Roman Emperor on his 30th birthday (24 February 1530).2 These events, the most important ceremonies of state of his reign, were formidable demonstrations of imperial power, and part of a process of bringing peace to Europe after decades of conflict in Italy and France, intended to impress on the whole of Europe the dominance Charles had achieved in Italy, and the authority he now commanded across his own vast lands. Numerous first-hand accounts of the entry and coronation were printed immediately as newsletters, in German, Italian and Spanish,3 and the post-coronation procession of Charles and the Pope was likewise depicted in a multi-block woodcut, designed by Robert Péril and printed in Antwerp in 1530,4 and in a multi-plate engraving, by Nicolas Hogenberg, printed at Mechelen in 1535.5

The individual woodcuts comprising our print show a continuous parade of nobility, standard-bearers and heralds, musicians, knights in armour on horseback, arquebusiers, halberdiers, pikemen, and riders drawing artillery, moving from right to left. They were intended to be joined together laterally to form a frieze nearly nine metres long, and when fixed to the wall of a room, or assembled as a scroll, the print offered a panorama where the onlooker could see – or see once again, if he had been present – the whole cortège pass before his eyes. Descriptive captions, cut in separate wood blocks and printed in the upper margins, guided the viewer along; near the end of the frieze, he would read ‘Stampata in uenetia a di p.° Iulio 1530’ (Printed in Venice, 1 July 1530).

Figs. 1-2 Left Earliest known state, with complete date 1 July 1530 (detail from our impression of print [15]). Right Subsequent issue, date 1530 cut away (detail from impression in Bibliothèque Nationale de France)

Multi-sheet, ‘mural’ prints are notoriously susceptible to destruction and loss.6 Of this woodcut, just six other impressions are recorded, preserved in public collections in Florence (Uffizi), Ghent (University Library), London (British Museum; British Library), Paris (Bibliothèque nationale de France), and Vienna (Albertina). Four more impressions are known through old catalogues; some might be identical to impressions now located in public collections. The complete complement of sixteen sheets is found in two sets (Uffizi and British Library), the latter printed many decades later, after the blocks had become damaged by woodworm. The other sets, including ours, are deficient to varying extents. Since the complete date (1 July 1530) is not present on any other impression, our print appears to be a unique survivor of the earliest known state (figs. 1-2).

We do not know whether the artist observed the procession, or relied upon visual information and written sources. Charles habitually travelled with a large retinue of artists,7 and both German and Italian artists have been proposed as designers or cutters of this woodcut.8 A recent writer, Giovanni Sassu, attributes the print to the ‘Circle of Jörg Breu the Elder’, the artist of a ten-sheet woodcut print of Charles V’s subsequent entry into Augsburg (15 June 1530).9 An impression of the woodcut with captions in German, mentioned in the literature but untraced today, is potential evidence of German origin.10 Certain details presented in the captions, such as the kinds and numbers of artillery pieces, the origins and numbers of soldiers, and names of participants, are found in the German newsletters, but not in the sole surviving Italian newsletter, which suggests that the author of the captions (if not the artist) refreshed his memory by reading the German newsletters (see discussions in list of prints below). Another intimation that the original text was German is the caption for print [1], where Charles is identified as ‘K.rlo’: the letter ‘K’ is not part of the proper Italian alphabet. The crude cutting of the Italian captions, in comparison with the cutting of the figures, also raises suspicion that the woodcut was designed and cut in Germany, and the Venetian edition was an afterthought.

The newsletters and the woodcut are not entirely consistent. In print [13], Charles is depicted astride a richly caparisoned horse, riding under a baldachin supported by four armed figures, amid a retinue of finely-dressed young gentlemen, and these details are all recorded in the adjacent caption. Both image and caption indicate that he wore a helmet ornamented with the imperial eagle. While the newsletters report that Charles rode on a white horse under a baldachin, surrounded by twenty-five young Bolognese gentlemen, they do not state who supported that baldachin, nor what Charles wore on his head. Georgia Clarke patiently analysed twenty-one unpublished Italian accounts of the entry, either written immediately, or soon after the entry: most state that the baldachin was supported by the group of young Bolognese men, who took that honour in turns; none that Charles wore a helmet.11 The deviations might be artistic license, or else the artist witnessed a moment during the entry when the baldachin was carried by men in armour, and when Charles wore a helmet instead of a velvet hat.

Early authorities bandied the names of several Italian printmakers as authors of the woodcut, including Jacobus of Strasbourg (Jacobus Argentoratensis), cutter of a multi-block ‘Triumph of Julius Caesar’ (Venice 1504);12 Domenico dalle Greche, supposed cutter of multi-block woodcuts designed by Titian;13 and Jacopo de’ Barbari, working from a design by Polidoro da Caravaggio (this pair of names is written in pencil on the verso of sheet [5] in our set).14 None of these attributions is satisfactory in the light of present knowledge.

The orthography of the woodcut captions convinced Stirling Maxwell that the designer or cutter was of Venetian origin, and he speculated that the letter A appearing on a helmet in print [14] might be an artist’s monogram.15 Other eyes discovered the letter A in prints [2], [10] and [13], and interpreted it as the monogram of Antonio da Trento (c. 1510-1550), an artist believed to have been in Bologna at the time of Charles V’s entry.16

Figs. 3 Details from prints [10], [13], [14]
Fig. 4 Comparative illustrations Monograms of Antonio da Trento17

Few biographical details about Antonio da Trento are known. Vasari records that the printmaker had fled to Bologna after the Sack of Rome in 1527 and entered into a collaborative enterprise there with Parmigianino, producing four chiaroscuro woodcuts between c. 1527 and 1530.18 In addition to those four, Antonio executed two chiaroscuro woodcuts, both signed with his monogram at (fig. 4); about thirty other, unsigned prints are tentatively attributed to him.

Fig. 5 Details from prints [10], [13]

The letter M is seen in prints [2] (helmet of seventh figure) and [10] (helmet of second figure); the letter K is seen on a helmet in print [13], perhaps signifying Karl (or Kaiser).19 These letters A-M-K are not referenced in the captions appearing above the figures in the cavalcade; however, the letters might refer to a separately published key.20 If so, it is baffling that participants of disparate social rank should be designated by the same letter A: in print [2], two in an unremarkable group of light horsemen (helmets of third and ninth figures from left); in print [10], one in a group of Spanish soldiers, astride horses adorned with caparisons fashioned from cloth of gold (sixth figure); in print [13], one of four armed knights on foot supporting the ceremonial baldachin over Charles V; and in print [14], Henry III of Nassau, the grand chamberlain,21 following Charles on horseback (he identified in the woodcut caption as ‘el gran marescalcho’). Likewise, the letter M in print [2] designates another in the group of six light horsemen; in print [10], a Spanish soldier with a plume in his helmet, his horse with a sumptuous caparison of cloth of gold.

Fig. 6 Comparative illustrations Details from print [8], showing progressive damage to the blocks caused by woodworm
Left Our impression Centre-left Bibliothèque Nationale de France Centre-right British Museum Right British Library

Fig. 7 Comparative illustrations Details from print [13], showing progressive damage to the blocks caused by woodworm
Left Our impression Centre-left Bibliothèque Nationale de France Centre-right British Museum Right British Library

The surviving impressions can be placed in a chronological sequence according to progressive deterioration of the woodblocks. Our impression uniquely preserves the complete date ‘a di p.° Iulio 1530’ in the caption block of print [15] and is therefore the earliest (figs. 1-2). The impressions in the Bibliothèque Nationale de France and in the Galleria degli Uffizi are also early; the latter has cable-ornament woodcut borders at head and foot, and tiny numbers cut in some of the blocks, which are not found on other impressions. The set in the British Museum shows evidence of woodworm, and must be later; the set in the British Library is considerably later, as indicated by cracks and losses to the blocks, which are now extensively wormed (figs. 6-7), and defects in the set of caption blocks. The set in Ghent and an unlocated set (Drugulin, 1867) are printed from thoroughly wormed blocks; in these sets, only one caption block is utilised (on print [2]). The set in the Albertina may be later still, as none of the caption blocks is used.

The British Library set is printed on a paper evidently made in the 1630s. Circumstantial evidence that the woodcut was reprinted at this late date is its use as a model for painted decorations executed c. 1628 in the Palazzo Mattei in Rome, by Giovanni Maria Ferri of Siena (Giovanni Senese),22 and in 1625 in Madrid, by Juan de la Corte.23

Provisional Census of Impressions

● Florence, Gabinetto Disegni e Stampe degli Uffizi, Sig. 27-St. Sc. (complete)

Sixteen prints (complete), each sheet c. 425 × 540 mm.24 Nineteen blocks of xylographic text. Intermediate impression, with date ‘1530’ cut from caption block of print [15], cable-ornament woodcut borders added at head and foot of each print, numerals added beneath the cavalcade on some prints (or in pen and black ink?): print [1]: 1 ; 2 ; print [4]: 3 ; print [5] 4 ; print [8]: 6 ; print [10]: 8 ; print [13]: 10 ; print [15]: 11. Uncoloured.

Literature: Gaetano Giordani, ‘Della venuta e dimora in Bologna’ del Sommo Pontifice Clemente vii. per la coronazione di Carlo v. Imperatore celebrata l’anno mdxxx. Cronaca con note documenti ed incisioni (Bologna 1842), pp.14-19: ‘Documenti Rari o Inediti: xvii. La cavalcata dell’Imperator Carlo v nel suo ingresso in Bologna’ (link); William Stirling Maxwell, The entry of the Emperor Charles v into the city of Bologna on the fifth of November mdxxix reproduced from a series of engravings on wood printed at Venice in mdxxx (Florence, London & Edinburgh 1875), facsimile reproduction (with significant alterations);25 Galleria degli Uffizi, Gabinetto dei disegni e delle stampe: La collezione delle stampe, compiled by Antony de Witt (Rome 1938), p.38;26 Annamaria Petrioli Tofani, ‘Gli ingressi trionfali’ in Il potere e lo spazio; La scena del principe, catalogue of an exhibition, Firenze e la Toscana dei Medici nell’Europa del Cinquecento ([Milan & Florence] 1980), p.347 no. 4.8 (‘Xilografo veneziano 1530?’); Jesús Criado Mainar, ‘Entrada de Carlos v en Bolonia el 5 de noviembre de 1529. Maestro anónimo de Venecia’ in La Imagen Triunfal del Emperador: La jornada de la coronación imperial de Carlos v en Bolonia, edited by Mercedes Serrano Marqués, Gonzalo Máximo Borrás Gualis and Jesús Fermín Criado Mainar (Madrid 2000), pp.247-256 (entire series reproduced); Jesús Criado Mainar, ‘La coronación imperial de Carlos v: el friso del Ayuntamiento de Tarazona’ in España y Bolonia: siete siglos de relaciones artísticas y culturales, edited by José Luis Colomer and Amadeo Serra Desfilis (Madrid 2006), p.104 fig. 2 (print [13] reproduced); Uta Barbara Ullrich, Der Kaiser im ‘giardino dell’Imper’: zur Rezeption Karls v. in italienischen Bildprogrammen des 16. Jahrhunderts (Berlin 2006), pp.192-194, 251 (figs. 92, 135-137); Giovanni Sassu, Il ferro e l’oro: Carlo v a Bologna (1529-30) (Bologna 2007), pp.46, 162-167 (entire series reproduced, figs. 9, 81-96)

● Ghent, Universiteitsbibliotheek Gent, BIB.G.003846 (13 prints only)

Thirteen prints (lacking plates [5], [15], and [?]). Late impression; only print [2] has xylographic text.27 Uncoloured.

Provenance: Roch Brisart28– Ferdinand Verhulst, Catalogue de la magnifique et précieuse collection de livres, manuscrits, dessins et estampes, formant le Cabinet de Mr R. Brisart, rentier, à Gand, Ghent, 10 December 1849, lot 41929 – Pierre-Jacques Goetghebuer (1788-1866), professor of architecture in Ghent – by whom bequeathed to the University library

LiteraturePierre-Jacques Goetghebuer, ‘[Questions nouvelles] No. 62. Entrée de Charles v à Bologne’ in Messager des sciences et des arts, publ. par la Société royale des beaux-arts et des lettres (1854), p.520: (link); Pierre-Jacques Goetghebuer, Sur l’entrée de l’empereur Charles-Quint à Bologne en 1529. Réponse a la 64me question [sic] proposée par le Messager des Sciences. Extrait du Messager des sciences historiques de Belgique (Ghent 1855), passim (link); Frederik Muller, De Nederlandsche Geschiedenis in platen (Amsterdam 1863), p.33 no. 377 (footnote);30 Pierre-Jacques Goetghebuer, Sur l’entrée de l’empereur Charles-Quint à Bologne, en 1529, et aperçu historique des ouvrages imprimés en Belgique, concernant le règne de cet empereur (Ghent 1864), passim (link);31 Ernest Vinet, Bibliographie méthodique et raisonnée des Beaux-Arts (Paris 1874), pp.64-65 no. 552;32 Gabriel René Mennessier de La Lance, Essai de bibliographie hippique (Paris 1915-1917), pp.318-319; Hermann Van Duyse, ‘La joyeuse entrée de Charles Quint à Bologne’ in Bulletijn der Maatschappij van Geschied- en Oudheidkunde te Gent. Bulletin de la Société d’Histoire et d’Archéologie de Gand 6 (1898), pp.211-213 (link); [Paul] Bergmans, ‘Communications’ in Bulletijn der Maatschappij van Geschied- en Oudheidkunde te Gent. Bulletin de la Société d’Histoire et d’Archéologie de Gand 6 (1898), pp.226-229 (link); Antonio Palau y Dulcet, Manual del librero hispanoamericano (Barcelona 1954-1955), viii, no. 14724733

● London, British Museum, 1862,0208.5 (13 prints only)

Thirteen prints only (lacking [5], [15], [16]), sheet heights c. 406 mm (sheets assembled – in incorrect order – to form a frieze 6993 mm long). Seventeen (of 19) blocks of xylographic text. Intermediate impression. Uncoloured.

Provenance: [vendor] P. & D. Colnaghi, 1862

Literature: Georgia Clarke, ‘The Emperor’s hat: city, space, and identity in contemporary accounts of Charles v’s entry into Bologna in 1529’ in I Tatti Studies in the Italian Renaissance 16 (Fall 2013), pp.197-220 (p.201 fig. 1); British Museum Collection database (link)

● London, British Library, 134.g.10 (fols. 171-186) (complete)

Sixteen prints, sheets 396/400 × 524/534 mm. Nineteen blocks of xylographic text. Watermark: flag with initials (left) G, (centre, on staff) b, z (or s).34 Late impression, the date ‘1530’ cut from caption block of print [15], cracks and losses to the blocks. Letter A not visible on the helmet of the Count of Nassau on print [14].35 Uncoloured. Bound in a set of two volumes, entitled ‘Popish Ceremonies’.36

Provenance: Cassiano dal Pozzo (1588-1657) and/or Carlo Antonio dal Pozzo (1606-1689) – within the Dal Pozzo library sold in 1703 to Pope Clement xi for the Vatican library – transferred in January 1714 to the Pope’s nephew, Cardinal Alessandro Albani (1692-1779) – within the Albani collection of prints and drawings, including the ‘Museo Cartaceo’, sold in 1762 to James Adam as agent for the Royal Librarian Richard Dalton – King George iii (Buckingham House) – British Museum – transferred to the British Library

Literature: Jean Jacquot, ‘Panorama des fêtes et cérémonies du Règne: Évolution des thèmes et des styles’ in Fêtes et Cérémonies au Temps de Charles Quint, edited by Jean Jacquot (Paris 1960), pp.422, 487; Bonner Mitchell, The Majesty of State: Triumphal progresses of foreign sovereigns in Renaissance Italy (1494-1600) (Florence 1986), fig. 6 (print [13] reproduced); Mark P. McDonald, The print collection of Cassiano dal Pozzo: Ceremonies, costumes, portraits and genre, Paper museum of Cassiano dal Pozzo; Series C – Prints, Part One (London 2017), ii, pp.431-437 nos. 651-666; University of Warwick / British Library Festival Books digitisation project (link)

● Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Estampes et photographie, Réserve PD-18-BOITE FOL (fols. 109-123)37

Fifteen prints (lacking print [16]), sheets c. 370/385 × 510/550 mm (trimmed), laid to album leaves. Nineteen blocks of xylographic text. Intermediate impression, the date ‘1530’ cut from caption block of print [15]. Sheets assembled in incorrect order: [1], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13], [14], [7], [8], [3], [2], [4], [5], [6], [15]. Coloured. Bound in 17th-century red morocco, royal arms and the ‘dentelle du Louvre’ on covers.

Provenance: Michel de Marolles (1600-1681)38 – inkstamp of Bibliothèque Royale, c. 1667

Literature: Gaetano Giordani, ‘Della venuta e dimora in Bologna’ del Sommo Pontifice Clemente vii. per la coronazione di Carlo v. Imperatore celebrata l’anno mdxxx. Cronaca con note documenti ed incisioni (Bologna 1842), p.18;39 Henri Bouchot, Le Cabinet des estampes de la Bibliothèque Nationale: Guide du lecteur et du visiteur. Catalogue général et raisonné des collections (Paris [1895]), pp.266-267: ‘Entrée de Charles v à Bologne le 5 novembre 1529. Planches sur bois coloriées (fol. 109 a 123)’ (link); Gabriel René Mennessier de La Lance, Essai de bibliographie hippique (Paris 1915-1917), p.44740

● Vienna, Graphische Sammlung Albertina (complete?)

Contents unknown. Joined as a frieze. Late impression, apparently without xylographic text (cf. Strong, op. cit., figs. 67-70: no xylographic text shown in reproductions; print [14] has instead manuscript text ‘Il Marchese d’Astorga, con dieci altri Baroni, tuui armati’).

Literature: Roy Strong, Splendour at Court: Renaissance spectacle and illusion (London 1973), pp.84-85 fig. 67 (reproducing part of print [2]; all of prints [3] and [4], apparently joined), pp.86-87 fig. 68 (prints [7] and [8], apparently joined), p.90 fig. 69 (print [13]), p.91 fig. 70 (print [14]);41 Braden Frieder, Chivalry & the perfect prince: tournaments, art, and armor at the Spanish Habsburg court (Kirksville, mo 2008), p.111 fig. 4.6 (print [14])42

Unlocated impressions

● Unlocated: ex-William Russell (1800-1884), c. 1857

Literature: Catalogue of the art treasures of the United Kingdom collected at Manchester in 1857. Provisional edition (London 1857), p.314 no. 1609 (link)43

● Unlocated: ex-Leipziger Kunst-Comptoir (stock of Wilhelm Eduard Drugulin), c. 1867

Sixteen prints (complete), 340/390 × 520/540 mm. Late impression, apparently only print [2] with xylographic text.44

Literature: W. Drugulin’s Historischer Bilderatlas: Verzeichnis einer Sammlung von Einzelblättern zur Kultur- und Staatengeschichte vom fünfzehnten bis in das neunzehnte Jahrhundert (Leipzig 1863-1867), ‘Nachträge’, p.1 no. 58a (link)45

● Unlocated: ex-Franz Ritter von Hauslab, c. 1868

Sixteen prints (complete).

Provenance: Franz Ritter von Hauslab (1798-1883), Vienna – possibly acquired in 1908 by Johann ii von Liechtenstein (1840-1929) as part of the Hauslab print collection, possibly thence c. 1948-1952 to P. & D. Colnaghi, London; alternatively entered in 1890s Bibliothek des Kriegsarchiv – Österreichisches Staatsarchiv-Bibliothek, Vienna46

Literature: Karl Schneider, ‘Zusammenstellung und Inhalts-Angabe der artilleristischen Schriften und Werke in der Bibliothek Seiner Excellenz des Herrn Feldzeugmeisters Ritter v. Hauslab’ in Mittheilungen über Gegenstände der Artillerie- und Kriegs-Wissenschaften, herausgegeben vom K.K. Artillerie-Comité (Vienna 1868), p.18747

● Unlocated: ex-Cesare Pirovano (d. 11 December 1900), sold 1901

Sixteen prints (complete).

Provenance: Cesare Pirovano – Sotheby, Wilkinson & Hodge, Catalogue of the selected portion of the valuable library of an Italian collector, deceased, London, 17-20 July 1901, p.74 lot 811,48 where bought by ‘Masson [Jean Masson, 1856-1933?]’ (£19 10s)49

List of prints

Prints [1]-[4] are lacking in the present set; images of these four prints are given here for convenience.

[1] The vanguard, comprised of imperial troops and a band of trumpeters

Comparative illustration Impression in Florence, Gabinetto dei Disegni e delle Stampe degli Uffizi

Caption block: Nel anno 1529 ad, 5, de nouembrio | fece la intrada in bologna el serenissi | mo et potentissimo imperartor Krlo. 5. con tutti li soi baroni con questa ordena | za como qua seguita et sua maesta | fo coronado in ditta citta:

Stirling Maxwell translation: In the year 1529, on the 5th day of November, the most serene and potent Emperor Charles v. made his entry into Bologna with all his barons in the order which here follows, and his Majesty was crowned in the said City

The Italian newsletter provides details that are not in the German newsletters.50

[2] 1st order of 300 knights, dressed in red

Comparative illustration Impression in Florence, Gabinetto dei Disegni e delle Stampe degli Uffizi

Monogram M on helmet of seventh figure (from left); Monogram A on helmets of the third and ninth (last) figures (from left).

Caption block: In questo primo ordene sono | chaualchado circa, 300, chauali | lizieri tutti uestiti de rosso honora | tamente con le soe armadure in | ordenanza:

Stirling Maxwell translation: First there come riding 300 cavaliers, all honourably clad in red with their armour in good order

These details are stated in the German newsletters;51 in the Italian newsletter, the number of knights is not specified and their costumes are not described.52

[3] Riders drawing 10 pieces of wheeled artillery

Comparative illustration Impression in Florence, Gabinetto dei Disegni e delle Stampe degli Uffizi

Caption block: Da poi sea condutto .10. | pezzi de artelarie sule cha | rette nelle quali pezi erano | 2. baselischi itriegi et 4. me | zi baselischi et .4. falconeti.

Stirling Maxwell translation: Then come 10 pieces of artillery with their carriages, amongst which were 2 large basilisks, 4 half basilisks, and 4 falconets

This number of artillery pieces (10) matches the German newsletters;53 in the Italian newsletter, 12 pieces are counted.54

[4] Artillery, followed by 100 gunners with hoes and shovels and branches of laurel (the latter for scouring the cannon when discharged), then captains of German mercenaries (Landsknechte) on horseback, leading their troops

Comparative illustration Impression in Florence, Gabinetto dei Disegni e delle Stampe degli Uffizi

Two blocks of xylographic text:

Caption block (left): Driedo de questo sono an | ati circha 100 guastadori | con le lor zape et badili i | orananza et in man aueua | no una rama de lauro.

Stirling Maxwell translation: After these come about 100 sappers with their bills and spades, in order, each holding a laurel branch in his hand

Caption block (right): Da poi li guastadori sono uenu | to a chaualo li todeschi capetani | di lancechenechi con li suoi ca- | pi de soldo armadi con le sue | arme et ben in ordine -

Stirling Maxwell translation: Next come the German captains of spearmen on horseback, with their picked soldiers, armed and in good order

These details are presented in both the German55 and Italian newsletters;56 the Italian newsletter provides additional details.57

[5] Mercenary soldiers (Landsknechte), armed with either a halberd or with an arquebus

390 × 557 mm. Coloured. Blank left upper corner made-up with new paper (roughly 160 × 85 mm); lower left corner also made-up with new paper. Slight loss along the bottom compared to the Uffizi impression; no losses at left or right.

Caption block: Da poi uene la fanta | ria todescha con li | soi archi busi :

Stirling Maxwell translation: Next come the German infantry with their arquebuses

[6] Antonio de Leyva, Duke of Terranova, Prince of Ascoli (1480-1536), Spanish general during the Italian Wars, carried in a litter, followed by soldiers carrying halberds or pikes

375/385 × 557/655 mm. Coloured. No losses left or right compared to Uffizi impression (the Uffizi impression slightly trimmed at right); no losses top or bottom compared to Uffizi impression.

Caption block: Questo e il signor antonio da lieue | il qual se feua portare in su una care- | ga de ueludo pauonazo da 4 hoi | el qual era principal sopra 3000 | fanti todeschi el qual gran tempo | e stato in millan

Stirling Maxwell translation: This is the Signor Antonio da Leyva who is carried in a chair of violet velvet by 4 men, [and] who for a long time commanded 3000 men in the state of Milan

In the Italian newsletter, these soldiers are said to be guarding the banners (shown in print [7]) and only 500 in number;58 Antonio’s command of Milanese troops is noted only in the German newsletters.59

[7] Two bearers carrying the same standard (saltire of Burgundy), on foot, accompanied by musicians, and followed by 3000 Landsknechte armed with halberds and pikes marching in file

376 × 555/560 mm. Coloured. No losses at left or right compared to Uffizi impression; slightly trimmed along top and bottom.

Caption block: Da poi seguito 14 ban | diere de lancechenech | sotto li 3000 in ordo | nanza a, 3, a, 3, be iordin

Stirling Maxwell translation: He is followed by 14 banners of spearmen, somewhat under 3000; in threes

The German newsletters report a contingent of 3000 Landsknechts;60 the Italian newsletter does not mention their number.61

[8] The retinue of Charles v, led by two bearers of standards (imperial eagle; red cross of St George) on horseback

375/390 × 560/563 mm. Coloured. More image here at left and right than Uffizi impression; no losses at top or bottom compared to Uffizi impression.

Caption block: Da poi li prediti fati sono chaual | chado 2 gran sig.ri armadi da ho | darme li quali hano portado, 2, | bandiere, in una era larm impe | riale in laltra una crose rossa.

Stirling Maxwell translation: After the infantry come 2 great lords on horseback, armed like men-at-arms, bearing 2 banners, on one of which was the Imperial arms, on the other a red cross

The two standard-bearers are identified in the Italian newsletter as a German nobleman and Don Pedro Manrique.62

[9] ‘Renzo Colonna’ with 300 knights on horseback

389/397 × 553/565 mm. Coloured. Slightly trimmed along left compared to Uffizi impression; no losses at top or bottom.

Caption block: Driedo le loro sono | chaualchato S. renzo | colona co 300 homini | darme in questa ordena | za como qui se uede :

Stirling Maxwell translation: Behind these comes the Signor Lorenzo Colonna, with 300 men-at-arms in the order shewn

In both the German63 and Italian newsletters, this figure is identified as ‘monsignor du Reu’, captain of Burgundian troops serving in the imperial army.64 No soldier named Lorenzo Colonna participated in the Wars; the caption writer apparently misidentified the condottiero Renzo degli Anguillara (i.e. Renzo da Ceri or Lorenzo Orsini, 1475-1536).

[10] Spanish soldiers on horseback, followed by 25 young men on Turkish horses

387/394 × 560/568 mm. Coloured. Monogram M on helmet of second figure (from left); monogram A on helmet of sixth figure (from left). More image at left and right compared to Uffizi impression; trimmed along the bottom with slight loss.

Two blocks of xylographic text:

Caption block (left): Da poi sono caualchato 400 ho | mini darme spagnoli con le lor | barde doro sopra li soi chauali | ben in ordine :

Stirling Maxwell translation (left): Next come 400 Spanish men-at-arms, with golden housings on their horses, in good order

Caption block (right): Da poi sono chaualchato 25 | zintilhomini zoueneti sopra | belli chaualli turchi con le soe | ueste de uelludo gialo -

Stirling Maxwell translation (right): Next come 25 young gentlemen clad in yellow velvet, on fine Turkish horses

These details are presented in the German newsletters,65 not in the Italian newsletter.66

[11] Halberdiers and heralds

289/395 × 548/550 mm. Coloured. Slightly more image at left than Uffizi impression; trimmed along the bottom without loss. This impression and Uffizi impression both have break in the upright pike (or sword) at far left.

Two blocks of xylographic text:

Caption block (left): Da poi questo uene una circa | 100 homini darme con le lor | barde doro con gran penachi | in testa et ben in ordine.

Stirling Maxwell translation: Next come about 100 men-at-arms, on horses with golden housings, with great plumes of feathers on their heads, in good order

Caption block (right): Da poi questo uene li trom- | betti della cesarea maesta co | li taburi come qui se uede.

Stirling Maxwell translation: After these come the trumpets of his Caesarean Majesty, with the drums as shewn

[12] Imperial trumpeters, followed by the Grand Marshall, supporting the imperial sword

395 × 560/565 mm. Coloured. No losses compared with Uffizi impression

Two blocks of xylographic text:

Caption block (left): Da poi uene li trombetieri co | le trombe longhe darzento | dela cesarea maesta pomposa | mente uestiti.

Stirling Maxwell translation: Then come the trumpeters of his Caesarean Majesty, with the long silver trumpets, splendidly clad

No musicians are mentioned in the German newsletters; the Italian newsletter reports 10 trumpeters, without specifying the metal of their instruments.67

Caption bock (right): Driedo de loro e chaualchato | el gran marescalcho con una | spada nua in man :

Stirling Maxwell translation: Behind these rides the Grand Marshal, with a drawn sword in his hand

These details match the German newsletters;68 they are not in the Italian newsletter.

[13] Charles v under the canopy of state: he rides in complete armour inlaid with gold, bearing a sceptre in his hand, with an eagle upon his helmet, his horse adorned by a caparison of cloth of gold with embroidered jewels. Four knights on foot support the canopy over his head; 25 young gentlemen sent by the city of Bologna attend him

397/400 × 552/560 mm. Coloured. Monogram K on the Emperor’s helmet; monogram A on helmet of figure behind him. More image at left than Uffizi impression; trimmed at right (losses on this impression are indicated below in bold)

Caption block: Seguito le predete ordenanze e uenuto a chaualo la | Cesarea maesta da ho darme e sop el suo elmetto era l aqla | iperial, e hauea uno saio doro sopra un caualo biaco co | la gropera et petoral de damaschin co li fornimenti doro | et sopra la cesarea maesta era una ombrella doro la quale | era portata da, 4, gra signori armadi da homo darme et | a la stafa ge era, 25, gentilomini gioueneti li quali | erano stati mandati dala cita di bollogna in cotra

Stirling Maxwell translation: After the aforesaid array, comes on horseback His Caesarean Majesty in complete armour, with the imperial eagle on his helmet, and bases of cloth of gold; he rides a white horse with a crupper and breastplate of damascene work and gold housings; over his Caesarean Majesty a golden canopy is borne by 4 great lords armed at all points; and beside him walk 25 young gentlemen sent to meet him by the city of Bologna

The German newsletters state that Charles is astride a white horse caparisoned with cloth of gold, riding beneath a golden baldachin, and accompanied by 25 young Bolognese gentlemen;69 they do not describe what he wears on his head, nor who supports the baldachin. The Italian newsletter does not provide any details.70

[14] The grand chamberlain, Count Henry of Nassau, with 100 knights in armour on horseback

395/402 × 565 mm. Coloured. Monogram A on helmet of figure at extreme left. Loss top right (170 × 110 mm, made-up with new paper; two lances lost); otherwise no losses compared to Uffizi impression. Break in lance (like Uffizi impression).

Caption block: Da poi la cesarea maesta e uenu | to a chaualo el gra maestro de | corte cote de nasau uestito da | homo darme co le barde doro i | so compagnia circa 100 homi- | ni darme ben in ordene :

Stirling Maxwell translation: Next after his Caesarean Majesty rides the Grand Master of his household, the Count of Nassau, armed at all points, and with him about 100 men-at-arms in good order

The German newsletters report the same details;71 the Italian newsletter places the Marquis of Astorga in the rearguard.

[15] Drummer, arquebusiers

397/400 × 560/570 mm. Coloured. Xylographic text block dated 1530. About 25 mm more image along left than Uffizi impression; otherwise same as Uffizi impression.

Caption block: Nel ultimo sono uenuti, 6, bandiere de | spagnoli li quali sono uenuti co la ce- | sarea maesta p mare li qualli uien sti | madi apresso 3000, et ueneuo in or | denaza a 5, a 5, a chaualo et a pede, Et | questo se fa notto a tutte le natione | Stampata in uenetia a di p.° Iulio 1530

Stirling Maxwell translation: After these come 6 banners of the Spanish troops who come from beyond sea with his Caesarean Majesty; their number estimated at about 3000; they came in ranks of 5, on horseback and foot. And this is published for all nations. Printed at Venice on the first day of July 1530

The German newsletters report similar details.72

[16] Standard bearers and more arquebusiers

395/397 × 548/560 mm. Coloured. Slight loss on right compared to Uffizi impression (tips of swords of last two soldiers lost); otherwise same as Uffizi impression.

No caption block

1. Clipping from auction sale catalogue mounted on verso of sheet [5]: ‘[Lot] 390. Domenico dalle Greche. 12 Bl. Einzug des Kaisers Carl v. in 12 gr. qu. Fol. Blättern; grosser Fries; auf einem Blatte steht: „Stampata in Venetia adi p. luio 1530;“ schöne alte Holzschnitte, wahrscheinlich von Domenico dalle Greche; alt colorirt u. weg. kl. Beschäd. aufgez.; sehr selten.’ Pencilled attribution on verso of print [15]: ‘Caravaggio, Polid. Drug[ulin] Nachtr[ag] 58(a)’. Count Mejan’s library had been purchased in 1847 by Friedrich Wilhelm iv of Prussia; see Max Joseph Husung, ‘Graf Mejan und seine Sammlung in der Preussischen Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin’ in Werden und Wirken. Ein Festgruß Karl W. Hiersemann zugesandt, edited by Martin Breslauer and Kurt Koehler (Leipzig 1924), pp.123-138.

2. Recent additions to the substantial literature on the entry and coronation are Carlo v a Bologna: cronache e documenti dell’incoronazione (1530), edited by Roberto Righi (Bologna 2000); Giovanni Sassu, Il ferro e l’oro: Carlo v a Bologna (1529-30) (Bologna 2007), pp.27-53; Georgia Clarke, ‘The Emperor’s hat: city, space, and identity in contemporary accounts of Charles v’s entry into Bologna in 1529’ in I Tatti Studies in the Italian Renaissance 16 (Fall 2013), pp.197-220.

3. The principal contemporary account of the entry into Bologna on 5 November 1529 is an eight-page newsletter in German; the first four pages describe in detail the imperial train, the various troops and their respective commanders, their armaments and clothing, then the anonymous author reports the meeting of Charles with the Pope, and events up till 16 November. At least ten editions were printed, inter alia, in Augsburg, Leipzig, Munich, Nuremberg, Regensburg, and Speyer, under varying titles (1) Eynreitung Keiserlicher Maiestat auff die krönung gen Rom [Nuremberg: Kunigunde Hergot for Georg Wachter, 1529], VD16 E 736 (British Library copy, online); (2) Roemischer Kayserlicher Mayestet Einreytten gen Boloniga [S.l.: s.n., 1529], VD16 E 737 (BSB copy, online); (3) Eynreitung Keyserlicher Maiestat auff die kronung gen Bononia [Leipzig: Valentin Schumann, 1529], VD16 E 738 (Halle copy, online); (4) Roemischer Kayserlicher Mayestet Einreytten gen Boloniga [Augsburg: Heinrich Steiner, 1529], VD16 E 739 (BSB copy online); (5) Roemischer Kayserlicher Mayestet Einreytten gen Bononiga [Augsburg: Heinrich Steiner, 1529], VD16 ZV 4936; (6) Römischer Kaiserlicher Maiestet Einreytten, gen Boloniga [S.l.: s.n., 1529], VD16 E 740 (BSB copy, online); (7) Eynreitung Keiserlicher Maiestat auff die krönung gen Bononia [Nuremberg: Georg Wachter, 1529], VD16 E 741 (BSB copy, online); (8) Der Durchl. Großmecht. K. Mayestat vast köstlichs einreyten, so geschehen ist zu Bononia am 4. Nov. (Regensburg: Paul Kohl, 1529), VD16 E 742 (BSB copy, online); (9) Einreiten kaiserlicher Majestät auf die Krönung zu Bologna [Speyer: Anastasius Nolt, 1529], VD16 ZV 26508 (Berlin copy, online); (10) Romischer Kay. Maiestadt einreyten gen Bononia [Erfurt: Matthes Maler, 1529], VD16 ZV 16183. The two editions published at Augsburg by Heinrich Steiner feature a title-page woodcut of Charles in a group of horsemen moving toward a city.
The earliest Italian newsletter, also eight pages in extent, prints an anonymous account sent to the papal legate, Cardinal Antonio Maria Ciocchi del Monte, of events from 24 October 1524, the day the Pope arrived in Bologna, until his meeting with Charles on 5 November; pages [2]-[4] relate the entry on 5 November, and the account is subscribed (p.[7]): ‘Da Bologna alli vii. de Nouembre. mdxxix’. The newsletter was printed in Rome under an exceptional privilege prohibiting a reprint for one year: Di Carolo Cesare Imperator augusto la ammiranda et triumphal Intrata in Bologna. Le cerimonie pontificali et Imperiali, il catalogo delli Grandi de Spagna et daltri principi, et le cinque imprese di Cesare pertinenti alla salute del mondo, secondo li auisi mandati de Corte al Reverendissimo et Illustrissimo Cardinal de Monte, Vescovo Portuense et Legato de Roma [Rome: Francesco Minizio Calvo], 1529. Edit16 CNCE 17014 (link ); scan of BSB copy (link). Colophon: ‘Cautum est edicto. S.D.N. Clementis. vii. ac Caroli. v. Caesaris inuictiss. nequis alius intra annu[m] libellu[m] hunc imprimat’ (p.[7]). Francesco Barberi, ‘Le edizioni romane di Francesco Minizio Calvo’ in Miscellanea di scritti di bibliografia ed erudizione in memoria di Luigi Ferrari (Florence 1952), pp.57-98 no. 105; Tullio Bulgarelli, Gli avvisi a stampa in Roma nel Cinquecento: Bibliografia, antologia (Rome 1967), p.39 no. 9.
The earliest Spanish account is an eight-leaf newsletter printed at Seville on 1 March 1530: La marauillosa y tri[unfal] entrada d[e]l iniictissimo Cesar E[mperador] augusto y Rey nuestro señor [...] en Bolonia (Seville: Batholomé Pérez, 1530); Antonio Paz y Mélia, Series de los más importantes documents del Archivo y Biblioteca del Exmo. Señor Duque de Medinaceli (Madrid 1915-1922), ii, pp.206-215 (link).

4. Péril’s woodcut is comprised of twenty-four sheets, and when assembled is more than ten metres long; these impressions are known: Antwerp, Plantin Museum; Vienna, Albertina; Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Cabinet des Estampes, Pd. 21+ (reissue Antwerp, 1579). H. Nijhoff-Selldorf, ‘Der Triumphzug Karl des Vten zu Bologna von Robert Peril, Antwerpen 1530. Eine niederländische Holzschnittfolge von äußerster Seltenheit’ in Oud Holland 48 (1931), pp.265-269; Elizabeth Armstrong, ‘Robert Péril and his 1524 privilege’ in Bibliothèque d’Humanisme et Renaissance 61 (1999), pp.85-93; Carolus. Charles Quint 1500-1558, catalogue of an exhibition held in Ghent, 6 November 1999-30 January 2000 (Ghent 1999), pp.261-262 no. 144; Kaiser Karl v. (1500-1558): Macht und Ohnmacht Europas, catalogue of an exhibition held at Bonn and Vienna (Bonn 2000), pp.156-160; Jesús Criado Mainar, ‘La gran cabalgata de Bolonia. Robert Péril’ in La Imagen Triunfal del Emperador: La jornada de la coronación imperial de Carlos v en Bolonia, edited by Mercedes Serrano Marqués, Gonzalo Máximo Borrás Gualis and Jesús Fermín Criado Mainar (Madrid 2000), pp.257-274; Sassu, op. cit., pp.168-169 figs. 97-102.

5. Hogenberg’s engraving is composed of 40 sheets, and when assembled is more than eleven metres long; multiple copies of at least five editions are known, the latest printed after 1619. Christian von Heusinger, ‘Einige Bemerkungen zur Editionsgeschichte des Triumphzugs Kaiser Karls v. und Papst Clemens vii. nach der Kaiserkrönung am 24. Februar 1530 in Bologna von Nicolas Hogenberg. Mit einem Anhang: Der Holzschnittfries von Robert Peril’ in Jahrbuch der Berliner Museen 43 (2001), pp.63-108; Gonzalo Máximo Borrás Gualis and Jesús Fermín Criado Mainar, ‘La gran cabalgata de Bolonia. Nikolas Hogenberg’ in La Imagen Triunfal, op. cit., pp.275-316.

6. See the account of ‘mural woodcuts’ in David Landau and Peter Parshall, The Renaissance print, 1470-1550 (New Haven & London 1994), pp.231-237; also Mark P. McDonald, The print collection of Ferdinand Columbus (1488-1539): a Renaissance collector in Seville (London 2004), i, pp.162-164.

7. On this practice, see William Eisler, ‘Carlo v a Bologna e i suoi rapporti con gli artisti del tempo’ in Il Carrobbio 7 (1981), pp.139-146; Giovanni Sassu, ‘La seconda volta: Arte e artisti attorno a Carlo v e Clemente vii a Bologna nel 1532-33’ in e-Spania (on-line publication), 24 June 2012 (link).

8. See British Museum collections database, 1862,0208.5: ‘No convincing name of an artist has yet been proposed, though the style might as easily be German [as] Italian. It is known that Charles took many artists with him to Bologna. These blocks give every appearance of being cut in Italy, but this does not exclude the possibility of there being a lost earlier version that was cut in Germany’ (link).

9. Sassu, op. cit., pp.46-47 and figs. 9-10. For Breu’s woodcut, see Guido Messling, Jörg Breu the Elder and the Younger, edited by Hans-Martin Kaulbach, The New Hollstein German engravings, etchings and woodcuts, 1400-1700 (Ouderkerk aan den Ijssel 2008), i, pp.26-32 nos. 25-34; Pia F. Cuneo, Art and politics in early modern Germany: Jörg Breu the Elder and the fashioning of political identity, ca. 1475-1536 (Boston 1998), pp.159-177; Fernando Checa Cremades, Carlos v: la imagen del poder en el Renacimiento (Madrid 1999), pp.167-169 fig. 91 (a-i); Kaiser Karl v. (1500-1558), op. cit., p.174 no. 109 (impression in Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich Museum, WB 3.49-57, images).

10. Heinrich Segelken, ‘Ueber die holzschnittliche Behandlung der Zeichnung Tizians “der Triumph Christi”’ in Archiv für die zeichnenden Künste mit besonderer Beziehung auf Kupferstecher- und Holzschneidekunst und ihre Geschichte, Fünfter Jahrgang (Leipzig 1859), pp.198-227 (p.207: ‘Dagegen ist nicht von diesem Formschneider [so-called ‘Maestro al Compasso’; cf. G.K. Nagler, Die Monogrammisten, Munich 1863, iii, p.762 no. 1826, link] der grosse Einzug Carl v. in Bologna vom Jahre 1530, in 16 Blättern, welcher mit deutschen und auch mit italienischen Inschriften vorkommt sondern schon von Domenico dalle Greche.’, link).

11. See Georgia Clarke’s analysis of twenty-one unpublished first-hand descriptions of the entry (Clarke, op. cit., p.210); Sassu, op. cit., p.47.

12. Georg K. Nagler, Neues allgemeines Künstler-Lexikon (Munich 1838), vi, p.400: ‘[No.] 2) Ein sehr seltenes Werk der alten Formschneidekunst, mit der Ausschrift: Im 1529 Jar Am 5 Tag Novembris… Diese sehr grosse Composition besteht aus 16 Blättern, zusammen 332 Z[oll] lang und 15½ Z[oll] hoch [393 × 8432 mm]. Vollständig trifft man dieses Werk selten, und es ist noch zu bemerken, dass man nur muthmasslich den M. Jacopo als Urheber nennen kann.’ (link); Charles Le Blanc, Manuel de l’amateur d’estampes (Paris 1856), p.417 nos. 13-28 (link). Jacob’s work is now catalogued by Robert Zijlma for Hollstein’s German Engravings, Etchings and Woodcuts 1400-1700, xva, edited by Tilman Falk (Roosendaal 1986), pp.197-206 (p.206: ‘Not accepted any more: The Entry of Charles v at Bologna, 1530’).

13. G.K. Nagler, Die Monogrammisten (Munich 1863), iii, p.762 no. 1826: ‘Im Künstler-Lexikon vi. S. 400 haben wir Holzschnitte von der Hand des Jacobus beschrieben, wir streichen aber jetzt No. 2, das grosse, aus 16 Blättern bestehende Formschnittwerk mit dem Einzuge des Kaisers Karl v. in Bologna 1529. Es erschien 1530, in einer Zeit, in welcher Jacobus wohl nicht mehr gelebt hat. Damals trat Domenico dalle Greche auf den Schauplatz, und vervielfältigte grosse Compositionen von Tizian durch den Holzschnitt.’ (link).

14. W. Drugulin’s Historischer Bilderatlas: Verzeichnis einer Sammlung von Einzelblättern zur Kultur- und Staatengeschichte vom fünfzehnten bis in das neunzehnte Jahrhundert (Leipzig 1863-1867), ‘Nachträge’, p.1 no. 58a: ‘1529 (5. Nov.) Einzug Kaisers Carl v in Bologna zur Krönung. Holz. Pol. Caravaggio del. Jac. De Barbary sc.? 16 Bl. gr. Qu. Fol.’ (link).

15. William Stirling Maxwell, The entry of the Emperor Charles v into the city of Bologna on the fifth of November mdxxix reproduced from a series of engravings on wood, printed at Venice in mdxxx (Florence, London & Edinburgh 1875), preface: ‘From the language of the inscriptions it is obvious that they were executed and published at Venice… “The name of the artist,” says Giordano [i.e. Gaetano Giordani, Della venuta e dimora in Bologna del Sommo Pontifice Clemente vii. per la coronazione di Carlo v. Imperatore celebrata l’anno mdxxx. Cronaca con note documenti ed incisioni (Bologna 1842), part 2, p.18] “has been sought for in vain.” Perhaps it is dimly indicated by the letter A on the helmet of the Count of Nassau, in No. 14’.

16. For the identification with Antonio da Trento, see Paul Bergmans, ‘Communications’ in Bulletijn der Maatschappij van Geschied- en Oudheidkunde te Gent. Bulletin de la Société d’Histoire et d’Archéologie de Gand 6 (1898), pp.226-229 (link).

17. Monogram at from chiaroscuro woodcuts of ‘Orpheus’ and ‘Saint John the Baptist’ by Antonio da Trento, flanking drawings from Georg K. Nagler, Die Monogrammisten (Munich 1858), i, pp.8-10 no. 17 (link); kunst-und-kultur, ‘Sammlerstempel’ (link).

18. Giorgio Vasari, Le vite de più eccellenti pittori scultori e architettori nelle redazioni del 1550 e 1568, edited by Rosanna Bettarini and Paola Barocchi (Florence 1976), iv, pp.539-540.

19. For interpretations of these letters, see Hermann van Duyse, ‘La joyeuse entrée de Charles Quint à Bologne’ in Bulletijn der Maatschappij van Geschied- en Oudheidkunde te Gent. Bulletin de la Société d’Histoire et d’Archéologie de Gand 6 (1898), pp.211-213 (link). A German ceramic of 1545 with initial k on the sleeve of the Emperor is reproduced in El Linaje del emperador, catalogue of the exhibition held at Iglesia de la Preciosa Sangre, Centro de Exposiciones San Jorge, Cáceres, 24 October 2000-7 January 2001 ([Madrid] 2000), pp.221-223 no. 2.4.

20. This explanation is advanced by Mark P. McDonald, The print collection of Cassiano dal Pozzo: Ceremonies, costumes, portraits and genre, Paper museum of Cassiano dal Pozzo; Series C – Prints, Part One (London 2017), ii, p.432.

21. On Count Henry’s service to Charles v and role in the ceremonies, see J.H.H. Houwing, ‘Graaf Hendrik iii van Nassau Breda bij den intocht van Karel v te Bologna’ in Mededelingen van het Nederlandsch Historisch Instituut te Rome, Tweede reeks, dl. ix (1939), pp.47-55 (p. 49 and pl. xiv fig. 1; link). The same illustration is used by G.W.C. van Wezel, Het paleis van Hendrik iii graaf van Nassau te Breda (Zeist Zwolle 1999), p.70 fig. 50 a (link). Paul Robbert Rijkens, Nassau on horseback: Meaning, form and function of Nassau equestrian imagery in the Netherlands since the 16th century, Proefschrift Universiteit van Amsterdam, 2015, pp.53-54 (link).

22. ‘Ingresso di Carlo v a Bologna’ (38 × 374 cm), now in the Galleria nazionale d’Arte Antica di Palazzo Barberini, Inv. No. 1972 (FN 35593 III). Rosella Vodret, in Galleria nazionale d’arte antica: Palazzo Barberini, i dipinti: catalogo sistematico, edited by Lorenza Mochi Onori and Rossella Vodret (Rome 2008), p.196 (reproduced). The Hogenberg engravings (see footnote 5) likewise served as models for decorations, notably frescos painted c. 1556-1582 in or near Verona, by Domenico Ricci (Il Brusasorci), Giovanni Ermanno and Jacopo Ligozzi, and Paolo Farinati; see Uta Barbara Ullrich, Der Kaiser im ‘giardino dell’Imper’: zur Rezeption Karls v. in italienischen Bildprogrammen des 16. Jahrhunderts (Berlin 2006), pp.229-234, 250-251.

23. Antonio Martínez Ripoll, ‘Entrada triunfal de Carlos v en Bolonia el 5 de noviembre de 1529. Juan de la Corte’ in La Imagen Triunfal, op. cit., pp.361-363.

24. Measurements stated by Criado Mainar, in La Imagen Triunfal, op. cit., p.247; Sassu, op. cit., p.46: 440 × 560 mm, with total length 896 cm.

25. From the Preface: ‘It is in tolerable preservation, though like all old prints on several large sheets, it has suffered considerably from the rough usage to which such works were inevitably exposed… A few of the worst of the results of bad printing have been amended, but the general character of the design has been scrupulously preserved. The original numeration of the sheets near the lower margin having been carelessly made, and the figures in some sheets having been omitted altogether, I have thought it advisable, for the sake of clearness, to add a new numeration, at the top, to the (spectator’s) right’.

26.L’Ingresso di Carlo v in Bologna. Fregio con dicitura: stampata in Venetia a di p.° lulio. Senza l’indicazione dell’anno, che probabilmente è il 1530. Prova B[artsch]. Stampa in 16 pezzi.’

27. Plaat 5 en 15 ontbreken, plaat 4 bijgetekend, enkel plaat 2 heeft tekst Voorafgegaan door een bl. met handgeschreven aantek. van P.J. Goetghebuer’ (Library opac, link).

28. Lilian Clark, Collectors and owners of incunabula in the British Museum (Bath 1962), p.48: ‘A collector of wide interests, described as a “rentier”. He bought at the best sales from 1789 onwards not only books but prints and drawings. A generous host in showing his collection; of rue longue des Violettes, Ghent. He was alive at the time of his sale in 1849’.

29. ‘Entrée de Charles-Quint à Bologne en 1529. 13 grandes feuilles in-fol. plano. dem. rel. dos de mar. vert.’

30. ‘De heer Goetghebuer te Gend, heeft in zijne uitmuntende Bibliotheek en Prentverzameling over Gendsche geschiedenis, een fraai exemplaar van dit werk, dat echter slechts uit 13 bladen bestaat, (ieder hg. 44 dm. br. 56 dm.) en alleen op het 2e blad een Ital. opschrift heeft: “In questo ordine” etc.; welk Ex. herkomstig is uit de auctie Brisart te Gent 184[9] No. 419, en daar voor den geringen prijs van 25 fr. verkocht’.

31. Reprinted from Messager des sciences historiques de Belgique (1864), pp.232-253, 497-500 (link).

32. ‘Ce livre, ou plutôt cette suite des figures, dont nous donnons un titre factice [La Magnifique et solennelle Entrée et entrevue de l’Empereur Charles v et du pape Clément vii dans la ville de Bologne le 5 novembre 1529] suite qu’il faut bien se garder de confondre avec la Cavalcade de Bologne, est tellement rare, qu’un homme très-spécial, très-expérimenté, conservateur de notre cabinet des estampes, feu Duchesne ainé, en ignora pendant longtemps l’existence. On ne l’a vue figurer dans aucune vente publique. Brunet ne l’a jamais eue entre les mains; il invite cependant à la distinguer, et renvoie pour les détails à un article consacré à cette suite par un bibliophile belge, article que Brunet ne s’est pas donné la peine de lire, car il n’aurai pas manqué d’établir cette distinction, dont la valeur n’est pas médiocre…’

33. ‘Folio, 13 laminas, grabs. en madera. No hay que confundir esta Colección de láminas con otras que representan la Entrada de Carlos v y ceremonias celebradas en Bolonia con el mismo objeto. Esta Colección es rarísima…’ Palau lists thirteen prints (only), following Goetghebuer, whose work of 1864 is separately entered (as no. 103140).

34. Comparable marks of same size (height 60 mm) reproduced by Edward Heawood, Watermarks, mainly of the 17th and 18th centuries, Monumenta chartae papyraceae historiam illustrantia, 1 (Hilversum 1950), no. 1380 (cf. 1369), not localised, 1630s; Gerhard Piccard, Wasserzeichen, Werkzeug und Waffen, Veröffentlichungen der Staatlichen Archivverwaltung Baden-Württemberg. 9. Sonderreihe die Wasserzeichenkartei Piccard im Hauptstaatsarchiv Stuttgart. Findbuch (Stuttgart 1980), ii, vi, no. 21, as a Württemberg paper, made at Heidenheim an der Brenz, 1631 (Piccard-Online, link).

35. McDonald, op. cit., ii, p.432.

36. Many sheets in the album document festivities of the 1650s; several document events occurring after the death of Cassiano (e.g. fol. 203, dated 1665), which suggests Carlo Antonio dal Pozzo (1606-1689) was its compiler. For provenance, see Antony Griffiths, ‘The Print Collection of Cassiano dal Pozzo’ in Print Quarterly 6 (1989), pp.3-10; A. Griffiths, ‘Cassiano’s print collection’ in The Paper Museum of Cassiano dal Pozzo, catalogue of exhibition in the Prints and Drawings Gallery of the British Museum, 14 May-30 August 1993 ([London] 1993), pp.245-259; Olimpia Theodoli, ‘Gli album inglesi’ in I Segreti di un Collezionista: Le straordinarie raccolte di Cassiano dal Pozzo 1588-1657, catalogue of an exhibition, Galleria Nazionale d’Arte Antica – Palazzo Barberini, 29 September-26 November 2000 (Rome 2000), pp.173-174.

37. ‘Recueil factice de cérémonies et entrées triomphales de 1500 à 1640’ (Library opac, link).

38. Michel de Marolles, Catalogue de livres d’estampes et de figures en taille-douce avec un dénombrement des Pièces qui y sont contenues (Paris 1672), p.47 no. cvii: ‘Livre d’Entrées & Cavalcates de pièces de divers Maistres… une Cavalcade Magnifique de l’Empereur Charles v. en 1530, de plusieurs pièces très-rares… Ce Livre contient 805. pièces’ (link).

39. ‘L’Abbate Zani ne’ suoi manoscritti inediti, che si conservano nella D. Biblioteca di Parma, accenna la suindicata stampa da lui ammirata nel Gabinetto Reale in Parigi in quindici tavole: e dice che e un legno irreperibile, molto bello, e di Anonimo Italiano’ (link).

40. ‘Entrée de Charles-Quint a Bologne’. Identifies the copy ‘admirée par l’abbé Zani au Cabinet royal, à Paris’ as ‘Cabinet des Estampes. Cérémonies et Entrées de Villes de 1500 à 1640, cote Pd 18’ (‘L’Entrée de Charles-Quint est la dernière pièce du recueil’). ‘Cette dernière, qui est la seule que je connaisse, existe en effet à la Bib. Nat.le où j’ai eu quelque peine à la découvrir, parce qu’elle fait partie d’un recueil factice et n’a pas de titre particulier. Elle se compose de 15 pl. in-f° gravées sur bois, qui ont reçu autrefois un coloriage assez grossier. Dans le haut de chacune se trouve un titre en italien. Les personnages à pied ont environ 18 cent. de hauteur, ceux à cheval, qui sont en plus grand nombre, 22 ou 23. Je ne crois pas que cette suite soit complète; en tout cas, elle contient bien moins de personnages que celle de la collection de M. Goetghebuer dont il nous donne une description détaillée. L’auteur des pl. est inconnu, je crois.’

41. ‘List of Figures’ (p.274): ‘67-70 Charles v’s Entry into Bologna, 1529. Venetian woodcuts. Graphische Sammlung, Albertina, Vienna (Photos: Museum)’.

42. Illustration caption (p.111): ‘Vienna, Albertina, GS. (Used by permission)’.

43. ‘Woodcuts after Titian… [No.] 1609 Triumph of Charles v. [lent by] W. Russell, Esq.’ (link).

44. ‘Von den dort angegebenen 19 Inschriften im oberen Theile der Platten findet sich hier jedoch nur eine vor’; ‘Sechs Ritter mit Fähnlein. Ueber ihnen di Inschrift: In questo primo ordine sono chaualchado circa 300 chauali – con le soe armadure in ordenanza’.

45. ‘1529 (5. Nov.) Einzug Kaisers Carl v in Bologna zur Krönung. Holz. Pol. Caravaggio del. Jac. De Barbary sc.? 16 Bl. gr. Qu. Fol. (58a)’.

46. Handbuch der historischen Buchbestände in Österreich, edited by Wilma Buchinger and Konstanze Mittendorfer (Hildesheim 1995), ii, p.173.

47. ‘6. 1529. Einzug Kaisers Karl v. in Bologna zur Krönung. Holzschnitt. Pol. Caravaggio del Jac. de Barbary sc. ? (Siehe W. Drugulin’s historischer Bilderatlas, 2. Theil) in l6 Blättern gr. qu. fol. In diesem äussert schön gezeichneten aber auch ebenso selten aufzufindenden Zuge, welcher ausführlich in G. Giordani, della venuta e dimora in Bologna d. S. Pont. Clemente vii. par la coronazione di Carlo v. etc. Bologna 1842, beschrieben ist, bewegen sich am 15. Blatte, nebeneinander marschirend, drei bemannte und bespannte Stücke, vorzüglich interessant und sehenswerth in Bezug der sehr deutlich zu entnehmenden Bespannungsart.’ (link).

48. ‘Représentation de la Cavalcade qui eut lieu à Bologna à l’occasion du couronnement de Charles Quint. – La intrada in bologna el serenissimo et potentissimo imperator Krlo 5 con tutti li soi baroni con questa ordenāza como qua seguita et sua maesta fo coronado in ditta citta, consisting of 16 large woodcut engravings, forming a fresco of about 27 feet long, with woodcut inscriptions on each sheet explanatory of the subjects and phases of the procession, corners of two leaves mended, oblong folio, Venet. s.a. (1530)’.

49. Book-prices current: a record of the prices at which books have been sold at auction 15 (1901), p.712 (link).

50. For example, the Italian newsletter identifies the two figures at extreme right, each carrying a standard mounted on a pike, as Captain Zuccaro and Count Torniello (i.e. Conte Filippo Tornielli di Novarra, d. 1553/1554, condottiero in imperial service); see Di Carlo Cesare, op. cit., fol. A2 verso: ‘Alle xx. hore comincio entrare la Antiguardia sotto il S. Antonio de leyua con li capitani Zucharo et conte Philippo Torniello con le bande loro.’ (link).

51. For example, Einreiten kaiserlicher Majestät auf die Krönung zu Bologna [Speyer: Anastasius Nolt, 1529], fol. A2 recto: ‘Nemlich und erstlich und vorher geritten drey hundert Leuchte pferd al wol gerüst mit spieß und harnisch in einer farbe all inn wullin kleydt gekleydet’ (link); Der Durchl. Großmecht. K. Mayestat vast köstlichs einreyten, so geschehen ist zu Bononia am 4. Nov. (Regensburg: Paul Kohl, 1529), fol. A1 verso: ‘Nemlich unnd erstlich sein vorgeryten, Drey hundert leichte pfärdt, all woll gerust, mit spiesen pfärdt unnd harnisch in einer farb, unnd all in rubin farb gekleydt’ (link).

52. Di Carlo Cesare, op. cit., fol. A2 verso: ‘primo caualli’ (link).

53. For example, Einreiten kaiserlicher Majestät, op. cit., fol. A2 recto: ‘ii. gantz schlangen, iiii. halb schlangen und iiii. ander feldt geschoß’ (link).

54. Di Carlo Cesare, op. cit., fol. A2 verso: ‘Lartigliaria cioe ix colubirne et iii canoni grossi’ (link).

55. For example, Einreiten kaiserlicher Majestät, op. cit., fol. A2 recto: ‘biß in hundert Paurn zoe genetscheri mit schauffeln, hacken, graben zu dem geschützt verordnet all mit marieten auß Lorberlaub in henden tragen’ (link).

56. Di Carlo Cesare, op. cit., fol. A2 verso-A3 recto: ‘et guastatori cento, de quali ognuno portaua in mano un ramo di lauro uerde’ (link).

57. A ‘Capitan Gulier’ is identified as leading 500 infantrymen: Di Carlo Cesare, op. cit., fol. A3 recto: ‘seguiua il capitan Gulier con la sua fanteria cioe, 500. archibuseri riccamente uestiti’ (link).

58. Di Carlo Cesare, op. cit., fol. A3 recto: ‘il Signor Antonio de leyua, oltra laltre uirtu, principe de la constantia portato in un sedia con un cappelletto alla todescha in habito ricchissimo, alabarderi 500 per guardia de la bandere’ (link).

59. For example, Einreiten kaiserlicher Majestät, op. cit., fol A2 recto-A2 verso: ‘Auff die seind gezogen xiiii. senlin teütscher knecht so lang zu Meylandt under dem Anthonie de Leua gelegen seind, und vorinher gezogen all ir hauptletit und doppel soldner zu roß vast wol erputzet. Darnach … hat man getragen den Anthoni de Leua inn einem praunen Samatin sessel und seind die andern knecht all mit spiesen auff in gezogen und die vierzehen senlin in drey glide auff eynander. Diese knecht seindt vast wol erputzet gewesen. Aber wie es xiiii senlen seindt gewest, so seint es doch uber drey tausent lantzknecht nit.’ (link).

60. For example, Einreiten kaiserlicher Majestät, op. cit., fol. A2 verso: ‘Aber wie es xiiii. senlen seindt gewest, so seint es doch uber drey tausent lantzknecht nit’ (link).

61. Di Carlo Cesare, op. cit., fol. A3 recto: ‘quali erano xiiii. et spantissime, con li banderali che pareuano principi, doppo passauano altritanti alabarderi per retroguardia de le bandere’ (link).

62. Di Carlo Cesare, op. cit., fol. A3 recto: ‘Lo de limpero portaua un Signor todesco, lo de spagna, portaua don Pietro manrique’ (link).

63. For example, Einreiten kaiserlicher Majestät, op. cit., fol. A2 verso: ‘Erstlich Monsignior de Rensz de Zera mit einem haussen biß in Drey hundert küriß all in plaw gelb rott reyeröck gekleydt’ (link).

64. Di Carlo Cesare, op. cit., fol. A3 recto: ‘Poi comparse monsignor du Reu capitano dhuomini darme borgognoni in un Cauallo con le barde coperte di broccato et ueluto carmosino et tutte le genti sue in ueluto et raso di numero 300’ (link). Contemporary reports of the entry recorded in Marino Sanudo’s diary refer to ‘Duron’ and ‘Duret, capitano fiamengo’; I diarii di Marino Sanuto, edited by Rinaldo Fulin et al. (Venice 1898), lii, col.185, ‘L’ordine di la intrata di l’imperator in Bologna per lettere di sier Agustin Foscari di sier Marco, date a dì 5 novembrio 1529’: ‘Capitano monsignor Duron borgognon’ (link); col. 194 (Letter of ‘Io Zambatista Gualtieri’): ‘monsignor Duret borgognon’ (link).

65. For example, Einreiten kaiserlicher Majestät, op. cit., fol. A2 verso: ‘Auch seint darnach di Spanischen herren mit iren Reyssigen, auffs aller köstlichest all in seyden gekleydt und bey vier hundert küriser mit iren Barsen, all inn gülden und silberen stücken gekleydt. Auff dieselben ist gezogen Kai May. mit Edlen knaben der seind fünff und zweinzig gewsen in gelb Samaten roecken auff schoenen Janeten’ (link).

66. Di Carlo Cesare, op. cit., fol. A3 recto: ‘viii. Con caualli da arme con li soi elemetti in testa uestiti di ueluto’ (link).

67. Di Carlo Cesare, op. cit., fol. A3 recto: ‘…et con essi .x. trombette alla diuisa de Cesare, talmente uestiti che pareuano Cherubini del cielo’.

68. For example, Einreiten kaiserlicher Majestät, op. cit., fol. A2 verso: ‘Und vor seiner maiestat ist geritten seiner May. Marschalck, mit einem plossen schwerdt’ (link).

69. For example, Einreiten kaiserlicher Majestät, op. cit., fol. A2 verso: ‘Darunder die Kay. maiestat geritten unnder eynem gülden hymel auff einem weyssen hengst, auff das schonest, mit einem gülden Bysz und gülden fornament, auch gülden stegreyff …und neben Kay. mayestat seynd gelauffen fünff und zweinzig jung Edelleüt von Bolonia’ (link).

70. Clarke, op. cit., p.209 (Table 1) and p.215 (Table 2), analysed 21 unpublished accounts written immediately (or very soon after) the entry (many recorded in Marco Sanudo’s Venetian diaries). Focussing on two details, Charles ‘hat’ and the colour of his horse, she found that none of these writers report that Charles wore a helmet (most state that he wore a simple hat made of velvet) and about half report that his horse was not white, but dapple grey.

71. For example, Einreiten kaiserlicher Majestät, op. cit., fol. A2 verso-A3 recto: ‘Auff die Kay. May. ist nachuolgendt geritten der Graff von Nassaw [Count Henry iii of Nassau-Dillenburg-Dietz, 1483-1538] in vollem kürriß mit einer güldin Barsen und güldin Leyprock uff in aber vil herren all in gantzen kürrisen uff dieselbigen Kay. May. bey hundert Kürrisen in gelb Samatiuroecken…’ (link).

72. For example, Einreiten kaiserlicher Majestät, op. cit., fol. A3 recto: ‘Nach allen diesen pferden ist gezogen sechs senlin Spanier welcher sechs senlin Kay. May. mit sin uber hat pracht… doch gantz grosse senlin und under diesen sechs senlin seind nit under drei tausent knecht Spanier gewest’ (link).

Top